Chapter 10

agricultural labor force
The number of people who work in agriculture. This is important because a large value indicates that the country is likely an LDC dependent on agriculture, while a small value indicates that there are fewer people working in agriculture, meaning that the agriculture is more efficient.
calorie consumption
As a percentage of daily requirement is an important index of development. People in MDCs generally consume more than 130% of their daily requirements, but most people in LDCs barely get enough to sustain themselves. The problem is worst in Africa, where most people do not eat enough.
core-periphery model
A model of the spatial structure of development in which underdeveloped countries are defined by their dependence on a developed core region.
cultural convergence
the contact and interaction of one culture with another
dependency theory
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
energy consumption
An indicator of development. MDCs tend to consume much more energy per capita than do LDCs. This will be important in the future because as LDCs begin to industrialize, there will be a great strain on the world's energy supply
foreign direct investment
a joint venture between a foreign company and a United States company
the properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles
gender empowerment measure
Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making.
gender related development index
Compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes.
gross domestic product
measure of the United States economy adopted in 1991
gross national product
former measure of the United States economy
human development index
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
less developed country
poorer countries that do not manufacture as many of their goods as more developed countries.
levels of development
literacy rate
percentage of people who can read and write
measures of development
used to distinguish LDCs from MDCs. They include GDP, literacy rate, life expectancy, caloric intake, etc.
control by a powerful country of its former colonies (or other less developed countries) by economic pressures
physical quality
primary sector
the part of the economy that draws raw materials from the natural environment
the quality of being productive or having the power to produce
purchasing power parity
a measure of how many units of currency are needed in one country to buy the amount of goods and services that one unit of currency will buy in another country
relatively develo
rostow W. W.
Prominent for his role in the shaping of American policy in Southeast Asia during the 1960s, he was a staunch opponent of communism, and was noted for a belief in the efficacy of capitalism and free enterprise.
secondary sector
The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
stages of growth model
linear theory of development that developed countries go through a common patterns 1)Traditional Society, 2)Transitional Stage 3)Take Off 4)Drive to Maturity and 5)High Mass Consumption
structural adjustment program
Economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, and charging citizens more for services.
technology gap
The contrast between the technology available in developed core regions and that present in peripheral areas of underdevelopment.
technology trans
tertiary sector
the part of the economy that involves services rather than goods
third world
underdeveloped and developing countries of Asia and Africa and Latin America collectively
transnational corportions
a corporation that, although it may be chartered and have headquarters in one specific country, does international business through an array of global subsidiaries.
world systems theory
economic and political connections that tie the world's countries together