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one of the main differences between protozoans and helminths is that protozoans are
_______, whereas helminths are ________

unicellular; multicellular

which of the following is not an organelle used for locomotion by protozoans?


which of the following is a mismatched pair?

a. flagellates; schizogony
b. rhizopods: gametogony

all of the following are possessed by helminths except _____

circulatory system

the three classes of helminth that are parasitic in humans include all of the following except

a. trophozoites
b. sporozoans

which of the following parasites uses more than one host to complete its life cycle?

a. plasmodium falciparum
b. taenia saginata
c. trypanosoma cruzii

7. which of the folling is a mismatched pair?

a. trichomonas vaginalis: fecal - oral route of transmission

match the parasite in column 1 with the pathological effect in column 2

a. plasmodium vivax - red blood cell depletion
b. giardia lamblia - malabsorption
c. schitosoma spp. - organ obstruction
d. hookworm - iron loss
e. trypansoma cruzii - demyelinating panencephalitis

all of the following are possible symptoms of malaria except _____

elevated red blood cell level

which of the following is not associated with cerebral malaria

low mortality

all of the following are matched correctly except

trypanosomiasis: fecal - oral transmission

example of rhizopod parasite is ____


the american form of trypanosomiasis is called _____

Chagas' disease

which of the following diseases is not caused by a nematoad

a. clonorchiasis
b. schistosomiasis

which of the following describes the infectious circuit of ascaris lumbricoides

a. ingestion of infectious eggs -> larval stage -> invasion of intestinal epithelium ->liver -> heart -> lung -> coughed into mouth -> intestinal tract

17.all of the following are examples of diseases caused by trematodes except _____

a. enterobiasis

Schistosomiasis is often treated with ______ to limit severe infections


cestodes are associated with all of the following characteristics except _____

known as roundworm

_____ can reach a length exceeding 10 meters while inhabiting the human jejunum

taenia saginata

unicellular fungi are referred to as _____


asexual reproduction in fungi involves the use of _____


sexual reproduction in fungi involves the use of ______

a. zygospores
b. basidiospores
c. ascospores

fungi that can grow in either the yeast or mold form depending on environmental conditions exhibit _____


which of the following is not an example of an oportunistic fungus of medical significance

sporothrix spp..

which of the following is a correctly matched pair

a. tinea capitis: scalp and eyebrows
b. keratitis: colonization of corneal epithelium
c. vulvovaginitis: candida albicans

all of the following are examples of deep mycoses except


all of the following are characteristics or components of innate immunity except


____ released from injured tissues recruits responding leukocytes to damaged sites

chemotactic factor

the cells of the epidermis contain _____, waterproofing protein that provides strength to the outer layer of skin


which of the following cell types produce mucus in the lower respiratory tract?

goblet cell

tears contain of all the following except ____


which of the following is a mismatched pair?

urine: alkaline

all of the following lysozyme except ____

stomach acid

low pH is associated with all of the following except ______


which of the following is a cellular mechanism that participates in the second line of defense in innate immunity


all of the following are examples of granulocytes except _____

B lymphocytes

differentiate into macrophages at the sites of inflammation


if the bone marrow reserve of neutrophils is depleted during a long lasting infection, then _____

immature neutrophils are exported from the bone marrow, but they are not as effective as mature neutrophils

if a neutrophil response is overstimulated during an infection, all of the following might occur except

elevated blood pressure

during parasitic infection and allergy, the number of circulating _____ increases significantly.


which of the following is a mismatched pair

microglial cells: spleen

which of the following make up the two major cytokine families?

tumor necrosis family

an example of a cytokine that recruits white blood cells to infected tissues is ____


all of the following describe the activity of mast cells except

release peforin and granzyme to kill target cells

dendritic cells located in the skin are referred to as ____-

langerhans cells

which of the following is incorrect regarding natural killer cells

recognize target cells using toll-like receptors

pathogens are internalized by phagocytes through the formation of ____


which of the following is not a trigger of vasodilation?

leukocyte endogenous mediator

examples of acute phase proteins include ______

mannose - binding protein
C - reactive protein

body temperature is regulated by the _____


which of the following is a mismatched pair?

alternative pathway of complement: mannose - binding protein

all three component pathways follow the same sequence once ______ participates in the cascade


which of the following are outcomes of complement activation

1. membrane attack complex
3. inflammation

antiviral proteins are synthesized by neighboring cells but require ____ to become activated

double stranded RNA

the concentration of antibody in the serum generated in response to an infectious pathogen is called the _____


a ____ is an foreign substances that provokes an immune response


which of the following is a mismatched pair?

tolerance: foreign antigens

the b-cell antigen receptor is called a _____


T - cell receptors have _____ of antigen - binding sites in comparison with B - cell receptors

half the number

T lymphocytes mature in the ____


specialized antigen - collecting cells of the gastrointestinal tract are called _____

M cells

which of the following explains T cell homeostasis in the elderly

long lived t cells divide by mitosis in periphery

lymphocytes bearing antigen receptors that have a high degree of affinity for self antigen undergo ______ during B cell development

clonal deletion

long lived lymphocytes that respond more rapidly and effectively on antigen encounter at a later time are known as ____ cells


which of the following is correctly matched?

MHC class I: cytotoxic T cells
cytotoxic T cells: CD8
MHC class II: antigen derived from vesicular compartments
humoral immune response: B cells

the isotype of an antibody is determined by the ____

constant region of the heavy chain

the location on the immunoglobulin that contributes to the unique antigen-binding site is referred to as the ____

hypervariable region

all of the following are examples of chemical interactions used to facilitate the binding of antigen to antibody except

peptide bonds

which of the following is not a function of the immunoglobulin constant region?

binds non-covalently to foreign antigens during infection

____ is the predominant antibody made during a primary immune response, and it consists of ____ antigen binding sites

IgM; ten

which of the following explains why IgM activates complement so effectively?

pentameric IgM has five constant regions available to interact with C1

the movement of antibodies across epithelial barriers is called ____?


when antigen binds to _____ on the surface of mast cells, inflammatory mediators are released, provoking vomiting, coughing, and sneezing


Babies who breast feed are afforded passive immune protection of their gastrointestinal tracts by the presence of ____ in colostrum


_____ protects the mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts by inhibiting the adherence of pathogens to host cell surfaces


which of the following accurately describes the morphological appearance of a mast cell after it has been activated

the absence of dark granules in the cytoplasm

____ control antibody synthesis and isotype switching

CD4 T Cells

circulating T lymphocytes that have never before encountered antigen to which they are specific are referred to as _____ cells

naive T

which of the following is a mismatched pair?

CD4 T cells; class I MHC molecules

the production of armed effector T cells is made possible by all of the following except ____

mast cells

cytotoxic T cells use all of the following to destroy target cells with the exception of ____

transforming growth factor - beta

all of the following are consequences of macrophage activation except ____

the release of perforin

all of the following are characteristics of memory cells except ______

once generated they do not undergo cell division

chemicals included in vaccines to enhance their efficacy are called _____


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