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one of the main differences between protozoans and helminths is that protozoans are
_______, whereas helminths are ________
the three classes of helminth that are parasitic in humans include all of the following except
which of the following parasites uses more than one host to complete its life cycle?
a. plasmodium falciparum
b. taenia saginata
c. trypanosoma cruzii
7. which of the folling is a mismatched pair?
a. trichomonas vaginalis: fecal - oral route of transmission
match the parasite in column 1 with the pathological effect in column 2
a. plasmodium vivax - red blood cell depletion
b. giardia lamblia - malabsorption
c. schitosoma spp. - organ obstruction
d. hookworm - iron loss
e. trypansoma cruzii - demyelinating panencephalitis
which of the following describes the infectious circuit of ascaris lumbricoides
a. ingestion of infectious eggs -> larval stage -> invasion of intestinal epithelium ->liver -> heart -> lung -> coughed into mouth -> intestinal tract
sexual reproduction in fungi involves the use of ______
fungi that can grow in either the yeast or mold form depending on environmental conditions exhibit _____
which of the following is not an example of an oportunistic fungus of medical significance
which of the following is a correctly matched pair
a. tinea capitis: scalp and eyebrows
b. keratitis: colonization of corneal epithelium
c. vulvovaginitis: candida albicans
____ released from injured tissues recruits responding leukocytes to damaged sites
the cells of the epidermis contain _____, waterproofing protein that provides strength to the outer layer of skin
which of the following is a cellular mechanism that participates in the second line of defense in innate immunity
if the bone marrow reserve of neutrophils is depleted during a long lasting infection, then _____
immature neutrophils are exported from the bone marrow, but they are not as effective as mature neutrophils
if a neutrophil response is overstimulated during an infection, all of the following might occur except
elevated blood pressure
during parasitic infection and allergy, the number of circulating _____ increases significantly.
all of the following describe the activity of mast cells except
release peforin and granzyme to kill target cells
which of the following is incorrect regarding natural killer cells
recognize target cells using toll-like receptors
which of the following is a mismatched pair?
alternative pathway of complement: mannose - binding protein
which of the following are outcomes of complement activation
1. membrane attack complex
antiviral proteins are synthesized by neighboring cells but require ____ to become activated
double stranded RNA
the concentration of antibody in the serum generated in response to an infectious pathogen is called the _____
T - cell receptors have _____ of antigen - binding sites in comparison with B - cell receptors
half the number
which of the following explains T cell homeostasis in the elderly
long lived t cells divide by mitosis in periphery
lymphocytes bearing antigen receptors that have a high degree of affinity for self antigen undergo ______ during B cell development
long lived lymphocytes that respond more rapidly and effectively on antigen encounter at a later time are known as ____ cells
which of the following is correctly matched?
MHC class I: cytotoxic T cells
cytotoxic T cells: CD8
MHC class II: antigen derived from vesicular compartments
humoral immune response: B cells
the location on the immunoglobulin that contributes to the unique antigen-binding site is referred to as the ____
all of the following are examples of chemical interactions used to facilitate the binding of antigen to antibody except
which of the following is not a function of the immunoglobulin constant region?
binds non-covalently to foreign antigens during infection
____ is the predominant antibody made during a primary immune response, and it consists of ____ antigen binding sites
which of the following explains why IgM activates complement so effectively?
pentameric IgM has five constant regions available to interact with C1
when antigen binds to _____ on the surface of mast cells, inflammatory mediators are released, provoking vomiting, coughing, and sneezing
Babies who breast feed are afforded passive immune protection of their gastrointestinal tracts by the presence of ____ in colostrum
_____ protects the mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts by inhibiting the adherence of pathogens to host cell surfaces
which of the following accurately describes the morphological appearance of a mast cell after it has been activated
the absence of dark granules in the cytoplasm
circulating T lymphocytes that have never before encountered antigen to which they are specific are referred to as _____ cells
the production of armed effector T cells is made possible by all of the following except ____
cytotoxic T cells use all of the following to destroy target cells with the exception of ____
transforming growth factor - beta
all of the following are characteristics of memory cells except ______
once generated they do not undergo cell division
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