Three political controversies between the 1830s and 1840s are as follows:
1. The Trail of Tears, aka the Indian Removal Act.
2. The charter for the Second Bank would expire in 1836, leaving the U.S. without a central bank for nearly eighty years.
3. Texas Declaration of Independence in 1836.
Th Indian Removal Act passed Congress on May 28, 1830 under Andrew Jackson's administration. This Act gave the president the right to negotiate with native tribes in the South and move them to designated lands to preserve their heritage called "reservations". The mentality behind this law centered around the idea that natives were inhabiting American territory and were not citizens or paying taxes. This caused political riffs against some tribes, and caused a series of battles between Americans and native tribes as the tribes were being located to states like Oklahoma and Nebraska. This removal act forever changed how Americans treat natives, and it changed tribal relations.
2. The Second Bank of the United States was in place from 1816-1836. This bank was not as successful as the original bank, and it struggled to gain popularity and support. Andrew Jackson did not support the Second Bank, and he vetoed a renewal. He vetoed it because he strongly believed that only gold and silver minted by the Treasury should act as currency. This was not the most effective banking decision, as there were many recessions and near financial meltdowns until the Federal Reserve was formed nearly 80 years later.
3. On March 2, 1836, Texas formally declared independence from Mexico. This did not make them part of the United States just yet, but the US decided to recognize the Republic of Texas for some time, up until the US-Mexican War. The new constitution of Republic of Texas forbade free blacks from living there, and women lost legal rights like signing contracts or suing. Texas declaring independence caused the US-Mexican War to happen, which would cause the US to gain Texas and other Mexican territories.