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STAT201: Descriptive Statistics: Tabular and Graphical Presentations

Descriptive Statistics: Tabular and Graphical Presentations Chapter 2
STUDY
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Qualitative data
Labels of names used to identify categories of like items
Quantitative data
Numerical values that indicate how much or how many
Frequency distribution
A tabular summary of data showing the number (frequency) of items in each of several nonoverlapping classes
Relative frequency distribution
A tabular summary of datat showing the fraction or proportion of data itmes in each of the several nonoverlapping classies
Percent frequency distribution
A tabular summary of data showing the percentage of items in each of several nonoverlapping classes
Bar graph
A graphical deviace for depicting qualitative data that have been summarized in a frequency, relative frequency, or percent frequency distribution
Pie chart
A graphical device for presenting data summaries based on subdivision of a circle into sectors that correspond to the relative frequency for each class
Class midpoint
The value halfway between teh lower and upper class limits
Dot plot
A graphical device that summarizes datat by the number of dots above each data value on the horizontal axis
Histogram
A graphical presentation of a frequency distribution, relative frequency distibution, or percent frequency distribtuion of quantitative data constructed by placing the class intervals on the horizontal axis and the frequencies, relative frequencies, or percent frequencies on the vertical axis
Cumulative frequency distribution
A tabular summary of quantitative data showing the number of items with values less than or equal to the upper class limit of each class
Cumulative percent frequency distribution
A tabular summary of quantitative data showing the percentage of items with values less than or equal to the upper class limit of each classs
Ogive
A graph of cumulative distribution
Explotartory data analysis
Methods that use simple arithmetic and easy-to-draw graphs to summarize data quickly
Stem-and-leaf display
An exploratory data analysis technique that simultaneously rank orders quantitative data and provides insight about the shape of the distribution
Crosstabulation
A tabular summary of data for two variables. The classes for one varialbe are represented by the rows; the classes for the other variable are represented by the columns
Simpson's paradox
Conclusions drawn from two or more separate crosstabulations that can be reversed when the data are aggregated into a single cross tabulation
Scatter diagram
A graphical presentation of the relationship between two quantitative variables. One variable is shown on the horizontal axis and the other variable is shown on the vertical axis
Tendline
A line that provides an approximation fo the relationship between two variables
Formula for Relative Frquency
(Frequencyoftheclass) / n
Formula for Approximate Class Width
(Largest data value - Smallest data value) / Number of classes