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Communication 1 Final

Terms in this set (139)

Can lead to positive changes in your thinking, feelings, and behavior

Intercultural training generally focuses on three areas:

1. Changing thinking(or cognition):
• Increase our knowledge about cultures and co-cultures and develop more complex ways of thinking about a culture
• Reduce negative stereotypes and help individuals appreciate other points of view.

2. Changing feelings(or affect):
• Experience greater enjoyment and less anxiety in our intercultural interactions
• We feel more comfortable and positive about intercultural exchanges.

3. Changing behavior:
• Develop better interpersonal relationships in work
groups and perform our jobs better when we know what to say and not to say—do and not do
• Act with greater ease and effectiveness in
accomplishing goals

Intercultural training:
1. Be mindful: be aware of your behavior and others' behavior.
• Intercultural sensitivity or mindfulness of behaviors that may offend others

2. Desire to Learn:
• knowledge of general interaction patterns common for a particular group can increase your awareness of other ways of communicating.
• prepare you to adapt—or not adapt—as you consider the many factors influencing an intercultural interaction.

3. Overcoming Intergroup Biases: if you have
contact with people who are different from you, you have a chance to understand and appreciate them better
Intergroup contact theoryy*: interaction between members of different social groups generates a possibility for more positive attitudes to emerge

Behavioral affirmationn*—seeing or hearing what we want to see or hear
Behavioral confirmationn*—when we act in a way
that makes our expectations about a group come true

4. Accommodate Appropriately: adapt your language
and nonverbal behaviors
Convergencee*: speakers shift their language or nonverbal behaviors toward each other's way of communicating
• to gain approval from others and to show a shared group identity
•results in positive reactions
• Don't Overaccommodatee*: going too far in changing your language or changing your language based
on an incorrect or stereotypical notion of another group

5. Practice Your Skills: using the language of another culture well enough to communicate effectively.
• Communicators with fewer social skills have more difficulty managing the "different" interactions that intercultural situations demand

Skills to Learn:
1. Listen effectively.
• Knowing when to talk and when to be quiet (so you can listen) is crucial to intercultural encounters.

2. Think before you speak or act.
• Take a moment to think about whether his or her behavior is a cultural difference rather than evasion or hostility.

3. Be empathic.
• Change your perceptions and improve your
understanding of the ways in which another person's culture affects his or her communication.

4. Do the right thing.
• Stand up for someone who is being mocked for his or her race, religion, or sexual orientation. Fight for those who don't have a voice.
Listening affects more than your ability to communicate: it enables you to live a productive, satisfying, and healthy life!

1. Helps your Career
• Established professionals need to listen to others, make others feel heard, and respond effectively to them
• Effective listening is related to job satisfaction, performance, and achievement of the organization's goals
• Employees who are good listeners are seen as alert, confident, mature, and judicious—qualities that result
in professional rewards like promotions and pay raises.

2. Saves Time and Money
• Save time by acting quickly and accurately on information presented to them.
• Repeated or duplicated tasks, missed opportunities, lost clients, botched orders, misunderstood instructions, and forgotten appointments can cost companies money—as can failing to listen
to customers.

3. Creates Opportunities
• Good listeners don't just avoid mistakes; they also find
opportunities that others might miss.

4. Strengthens Relationships
• In new relationships, failure to listen competently to learn more about each other usually results in less attraction and more negative emotions
• Can significantly reduce your partner's stress in a challenging situation by letting him or her talk through
difficult events while you listen actively
• When a friend verbally "ruminates"—talks over and over again about the same issues—listening supportively can help the person feel more satisfied with the friendship

5. Accomplishes your goals
• Listen for information, ideas, emotions, or enjoyment.
• Each listening situation involves achieving different types of goals
• You listen to comprehend, to evaluate, to communicate empathy, and to appreciate
Most common:
Primary groups: longlasting groups that form around the relationships that mean the most to their members.
Ex: family, friends.

Groups defined by their specific
Support group: a set of
individuals who come together to address personal problems while benefiting
from the support of others with similar issues
Social group: membership in the group offers opportunities to form relationships with others
Problem-Solving group: group with a specific mission—to help members manage their struggles

Task-oriented Groups:
Study groups: formed for the specific
purpose of helping students prepare for exams.
most task-oriented
Teamm*: group that works together to carry out a project or to compete against other teams.
Example: Sports teams, Reconnaissance team
Self-directed work team (SDWT): a group of skilled workers who take responsibility themselves for producing high-quality finished work
• Members control their own management functions, such as arranging their schedules, buying equipment,
and setting standards for productivity, quality, and costs.
• Conduct their own peer evaluations and coordinate their future plans with management.
• Complementary skills and experiences enable the team to accomplish more
together than any individual member could achieve independently

Impact of Self-directed teams:
• Improved performance and cooperation of employees throughout the organization.
• Organizations are shifting their structural power and decision making from upper
levels to lower levels of management in efforts to implement change and growth
and empower employees
1. Size and Complexity of Groups:
• small group communication involves at least three members, with a maximum of fifteen to twenty-five members
• In order to effectively perform tasks within classrooms or work projects, five to seven members may be optimum

Logistics of communication grow more complex the larger a group gets, creating structured communication exchanges among members.
Interaction is more formall*: may feel the need to obtain permission to speak, and they may also be reluctant to interrupt a speaker.
Each member has limited opportunities to contributee*: few members tend to dominate much of the talk, while the less assertive members tend to remain quiet.
The communication becomes less intimatee*: participants feel less comfortable self-disclosing or voicing
controversial opinions.
The interaction consumes more timee*: more opinions possible, the interaction takes longer to complete.
Relationships become more complexx*: number of relationships multiplies further with each additional participant!

2. Formation of Cliques: as group size increases, small subgroups of individuals often begin to bond together within the group, forming cliques

When cliques take shape in a group, communication becomes more challenging:
• How to communicate with entire subgroups.
• Countercoalitions: one
subgroup positions itself against another on an issue
Social ostracismm*: the exclusion of a particular group member (or members) that leads to anxiety, anger, and sadness,
as targets of ostracism feel a decrease in belonging, control, and self esteem

3.Social Loafing failing to invest the same level of effort in the group that they'd put in if they were working alone or with one other person
• Affects both participation and communication in groups
• Perceived inequality of effort causes conflict
Ex: Feeling Shy, Feelings of Anonymity

Reduce Social Loafing:
Establish objectives and performance goalss*: Make the schedule clear and clarify what each member's individual responsibility is.
Establish individual accountabilityy*: members understand that they are expected to carry out their duties
and evaluated on performance
Encourage team identity and ownershipp*: take the time to get to know each other and build social bonds and trust, take pride and ownership in work—which will also promote dedication to the cause.
Stay in contactt*: If miscommunication occurs discuss it right away.

4. Group Networks: patterns of interaction governing who speaks with whom in a group and about what. .
Centralityy*: the degree to which an individual sends and receives
messages from others in the group.
• team leader or manager typically has the highest level of centrality in a formal group,
Isolationn*: The individual with the least amount of message communication.

Types of networks:
• Chain Networkss*: Information is passed from one member to the next in a
sequential pattern.
• Practical for sharing written information:
an e-mail FWD.
• Lead to frustration and miscommunication when information is spoken, as the messages can easily get distorted as they are passed along.

All-Channel Networkss*: all members interact with each other equally.
• Roundtable discussions
• No leader, and all members operate at the same level of centrality
• Collaborative projects
• Brainstorming ideas
• Lack of order= Inefficient

Wheel Networkss*: one individual acts as a touchstone for all the others in the
group; all group members share their information with that one individual, who
then shares the information with the rest of the group.
• Efficient: if activities and contributions must be culled and tracked in order to
avoid duplicating efforts and to ensure that all tasks are being completed
• Lowest shared centrality
1. Task Roles: Concerned with the accomplishment of the group's goals—specifically, the activities that need to be carried out for the group to achieve its objectives.
• An information giverr*: offers facts, beliefs, personal experience, or other input during group discussions
• An information seekerr*: asks for input or clarification of ideas or opinions that
members have presented
• An elaboratorr*: provides further clarification of points, often adding to what others have said
• An initiatorr*: helps the group move toward its objective by proposing solutions, presenting new ideas, or suggesting new ways of looking at an issue the group is discussing
• An administratorr*: keeps the conversation on track and ensures that meetings begin and end on time

2. Social Roles: manage how people in the group are feeling and getting
along with each other.
• A harmonizerr*: seeks to smooth over tension in the group by settling differences among members and working out compromises when conflict arises
• A gatekeeperr*: works to ensure that each member of the group gets a chance
to voice their opinions or otherwise contribute to discussions.
• A sensorr*: expresses group feelings, moods, or relationships in an effort to
recognize the climate and capitalize on it or modify it for the better

3. Antigroup Roles:create problems because they serve individual members' priorities at the expense of group needs.
• A blockerr*: indulges in destructive communication, including opposing or
criticizing all ideas and stubbornly reintroducing an idea after the group
has already rejected or bypassed it
• An avoiderr*: refuses to engage in the group's proceedings by expressing cynicism or nonchalance toward ideas presented or by joking or changing the
• A recognition seekerr*: calls attention to himself or herself by boasting or by
going on and on about his or her qualifications or personal achievements
• A distractorr*: goes off on tangents or tells irrelevant stories
• Trolls—individuals
who intentionally insert irrelevant and inflammatory comments into the discussion in order to stir up controversy.
1. Directive Leader: focuses on the group's tasks and controls the group's communication by conveying specific instructions to members.
• chart next steps in the group's tasks
• clarify the group's goals, plans, and desired outcomes

Best used:
• when members are unsure of what's expected of them or how to carry out their

2. Supportive leader: attends to group members' emotional and relational needs.
• Stress the importance of positive relationships in the group
• Remind members of the group's importance
• Express appreciation for members' talents and work ethic.

Best Used:
• When members feel frustrated with their task or with each other.

3. Participative leader: views group members as equals, welcomes their opinions, summarizes points that have been raised, and identifies problems that need discussion rather than dictating solutions.
• Give some assistance and support to group members
• Guide and facilitate group discussion
• Step in when needed

Best Used:
• when group members are competent and motivated to take on their tasks but also benefit from their leader's involvement and feedback.

4.Laissez-Faire leader: gives up some degree of power or control and gives that power to team members.

Best Used:
• group to handle their own responsibilities, does not take part in the group's discussions or work efforts, and provides feedback only when asked.

5.Achievement Oriented: leader sets challenging goals and communicates
high expectations and standards to members.
• Setting lofty goals
• Encourage outside-thebox thinking
• Compare the group with other high-performing groups
• Keep members focused on tangible outcomes

Best Used:
• when group members are highly skilled and are eager to produce great accomplishments.
1. Arrive Prepared
• Done the preparation we
described previously.

2. Keep the Group Focused
• When a member goes off on a tangent, the leader should politely interrupt by simply noting,

3. Keep an Eye on the Time
• Be aware of time constraints to keep their meetings running efficiently and to respect the time pressures on the other members.
• Helpful to impose time limits on certain components of the discussion.
Nonbinding straw polll*—taking an informal vote on a decision

4. Manage Distractions
• Essential that your group comes up with a policy regarding proper etiquette and
behavior during its meetings, particularly in regard to cell phone use.

5. Manage Conflict
• Group members deal with conflict productively, they ask clarifying questions, respectfully challenge one another's ideas, consider worst-case scenarios, and revise proposals as needed to reflect new information and insights.

Consensuss*: group solidarity in sentiment, belief, or decision—is often a better approach than making decisions by
majority vote.
• everyone must agree on the
final decision before it can be implemented.

6. Summarize Periodically
• Summarize what has happened to provide members with opportunities to confirm, correct, or clarify what has occurred so
• Help ensure agreement, formation of next steps, and how members are to carry out their designated tasks.

7. Follow Up
• Group members should implement their decisions and take stock of the results as well as the experience of working together.
1. Classical Management Approach: likens organizations to machines with a focus on maximizing efficiency.
• Reached its peak during the Industrial Revolution
• communication flows from the top (management) down to
the bottom (the lowest-level workers)

Two Central Ideas:
• Division of Labor: assumption that each part of an organization (and each person involved) must carry out a specialized task in order for the organization to run smoothly.
• Favor Hierarchy: the layers of power and authority in an organization.

2. Human Relations Approach: considers the human needs of organizational members (enjoying interpersonal relationships, sharing ideas with
others, feeling like a member of a group, and so on).
• Managers express more interest in their employees
• Provide incentives for good work and
emphasize a greater sense of belonging to a larger cause or purpose.
• Organizational members are also
encouraged to interact with each other on a more personal level

3. Human Resources Approach: considers
employees as assets to the organization who can be fulfilled by participating and
contributing useful ideas
• Given more responsibility and autonomy to achieve their own goals, they perform
better and remain motivated, which benefits both the employees and the

4. The Systems Approach: views an organization as a unique whole made up of important members who have interdependent relationships within their particular environment
• like an ecosystem: the members of an organization, as well as outside forces
in the environment: all affect each other and the organization as a whole.
• Openness: An organization's awareness of its own imbalances and problems.
• Adaptability: The ability to adjust