Listening affects more than your ability to communicate: it enables you to live a productive, satisfying, and healthy life!
1. Helps your Career
• Established professionals need to listen to others, make others feel heard, and respond effectively to them
• Effective listening is related to job satisfaction, performance, and achievement of the organization's goals
• Employees who are good listeners are seen as alert, confident, mature, and judicious—qualities that result
in professional rewards like promotions and pay raises.
2. Saves Time and Money
• Save time by acting quickly and accurately on information presented to them.
• Repeated or duplicated tasks, missed opportunities, lost clients, botched orders, misunderstood instructions, and forgotten appointments can cost companies money—as can failing to listen
3. Creates Opportunities
• Good listeners don't just avoid mistakes; they also find
opportunities that others might miss.
4. Strengthens Relationships
• In new relationships, failure to listen competently to learn more about each other usually results in less attraction and more negative emotions
• Can significantly reduce your partner's stress in a challenging situation by letting him or her talk through
difficult events while you listen actively
• When a friend verbally "ruminates"—talks over and over again about the same issues—listening supportively can help the person feel more satisfied with the friendship
5. Accomplishes your goals
• Listen for information, ideas, emotions, or enjoyment.
• Each listening situation involves achieving different types of goals
• You listen to comprehend, to evaluate, to communicate empathy, and to appreciate
As groups develop, they progress through five stages: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.
Stages are linear:
1. Forming: group members try to figure out who will be in charge and what the group's goals will be.
• members learn more
about one another and the group's objectives.
2. Storming: begin experiencing conflicts over issues such as who
will lead the group and what roles members will play.
• Begin to disagree on goals, tasks, and cliques, and other competitive divisions may even begin to form
3. Norming: norms emerge among members that govern expected behavior. Norms: recurring patterns of behavior or thinking that come to be accepted in a group as the "usual" way of doing things
• Group roles also solidify based on individual member strengths, and a leader may emerge.
• Group identity grows stronger as members realize the importance of their roles within the group and the need to cooperate to accomplish goals.
4. Performing: members combine
their skills and knowledge to work toward the group's goals and overcome
• High levels of interdependence, motivation, and clarity in delegation of team member tasks.
5. Adjourning: group members reflect on their accomplishments and failures as well as determine whether the group will
disassemble or take on another project.
• Termination Ritual: Celebrate
their achievements with a final get-together
1. Size and Complexity of Groups:
• small group communication involves at least three members, with a maximum of fifteen to twenty-five members
• In order to effectively perform tasks within classrooms or work projects, five to seven members may be optimum
Logistics of communication grow more complex the larger a group gets, creating structured communication exchanges among members.
• Interaction is more formall*: may feel the need to obtain permission to speak, and they may also be reluctant to interrupt a speaker.
• Each member has limited opportunities to contributee*: few members tend to dominate much of the talk, while the less assertive members tend to remain quiet.
• The communication becomes less intimatee*: participants feel less comfortable self-disclosing or voicing
• The interaction consumes more timee*: more opinions possible, the interaction takes longer to complete.
• Relationships become more complexx*: number of relationships multiplies further with each additional participant!
2. Formation of Cliques: as group size increases, small subgroups of individuals often begin to bond together within the group, forming cliques
When cliques take shape in a group, communication becomes more challenging:
• How to communicate with entire subgroups.
• Countercoalitions: one
subgroup positions itself against another on an issue
• Social ostracismm*: the exclusion of a particular group member (or members) that leads to anxiety, anger, and sadness,
as targets of ostracism feel a decrease in belonging, control, and self esteem
3.Social Loafing failing to invest the same level of effort in the group that they'd put in if they were working alone or with one other person
• Affects both participation and communication in groups
• Perceived inequality of effort causes conflict
Ex: Feeling Shy, Feelings of Anonymity
Reduce Social Loafing:
• Establish objectives and performance goalss*: Make the schedule clear and clarify what each member's individual responsibility is.
• Establish individual accountabilityy*: members understand that they are expected to carry out their duties
and evaluated on performance
• Encourage team identity and ownershipp*: take the time to get to know each other and build social bonds and trust, take pride and ownership in work—which will also promote dedication to the cause.
• Stay in contactt*: If miscommunication occurs discuss it right away.
4. Group Networks: patterns of interaction governing who speaks with whom in a group and about what. .
• Centralityy*: the degree to which an individual sends and receives
messages from others in the group.
• team leader or manager typically has the highest level of centrality in a formal group,
• Isolationn*: The individual with the least amount of message communication.
Types of networks:
• Chain Networkss*: Information is passed from one member to the next in a
• Practical for sharing written information:
an e-mail FWD.
• Lead to frustration and miscommunication when information is spoken, as the messages can easily get distorted as they are passed along.
• All-Channel Networkss*: all members interact with each other equally.
• Roundtable discussions
• No leader, and all members operate at the same level of centrality
• Collaborative projects
• Brainstorming ideas
• Lack of order= Inefficient
• Wheel Networkss*: one individual acts as a touchstone for all the others in the
group; all group members share their information with that one individual, who
then shares the information with the rest of the group.
• Efficient: if activities and contributions must be culled and tracked in order to
avoid duplicating efforts and to ensure that all tasks are being completed
• Lowest shared centrality
1. Task Roles: Concerned with the accomplishment of the group's goals—specifically, the activities that need to be carried out for the group to achieve its objectives.
• An information giverr*: offers facts, beliefs, personal experience, or other input during group discussions
• An information seekerr*: asks for input or clarification of ideas or opinions that
members have presented
• An elaboratorr*: provides further clarification of points, often adding to what others have said
• An initiatorr*: helps the group move toward its objective by proposing solutions, presenting new ideas, or suggesting new ways of looking at an issue the group is discussing
• An administratorr*: keeps the conversation on track and ensures that meetings begin and end on time
2. Social Roles: manage how people in the group are feeling and getting
along with each other.
• A harmonizerr*: seeks to smooth over tension in the group by settling differences among members and working out compromises when conflict arises
• A gatekeeperr*: works to ensure that each member of the group gets a chance
to voice their opinions or otherwise contribute to discussions.
• A sensorr*: expresses group feelings, moods, or relationships in an effort to
recognize the climate and capitalize on it or modify it for the better
3. Antigroup Roles:create problems because they serve individual members' priorities at the expense of group needs.
• A blockerr*: indulges in destructive communication, including opposing or
criticizing all ideas and stubbornly reintroducing an idea after the group
has already rejected or bypassed it
• An avoiderr*: refuses to engage in the group's proceedings by expressing cynicism or nonchalance toward ideas presented or by joking or changing the
• A recognition seekerr*: calls attention to himself or herself by boasting or by
going on and on about his or her qualifications or personal achievements
• A distractorr*: goes off on tangents or tells irrelevant stories
who intentionally insert irrelevant and inflammatory comments into the discussion in order to stir up controversy.
1. Arrive Prepared
• Done the preparation we
2. Keep the Group Focused
• When a member goes off on a tangent, the leader should politely interrupt by simply noting,
3. Keep an Eye on the Time
• Be aware of time constraints to keep their meetings running efficiently and to respect the time pressures on the other members.
• Helpful to impose time limits on certain components of the discussion.
• Nonbinding straw polll*—taking an informal vote on a decision
4. Manage Distractions
• Essential that your group comes up with a policy regarding proper etiquette and
behavior during its meetings, particularly in regard to cell phone use.
5. Manage Conflict
• Group members deal with conflict productively, they ask clarifying questions, respectfully challenge one another's ideas, consider worst-case scenarios, and revise proposals as needed to reflect new information and insights.
• Consensuss*: group solidarity in sentiment, belief, or decision—is often a better approach than making decisions by
• everyone must agree on the
final decision before it can be implemented.
6. Summarize Periodically
• Summarize what has happened to provide members with opportunities to confirm, correct, or clarify what has occurred so
• Help ensure agreement, formation of next steps, and how members are to carry out their designated tasks.
7. Follow Up
• Group members should implement their decisions and take stock of the results as well as the experience of working together.
*Consequences of Economics
-Need "hits" big audience
-Very little risk taking
-Do not want viewers or advertisers offended
-boycotts can sometimes be effective
-industry self-censorship is common
-"Standards and Practices"
- I Love Lucy couldn't say "pregnant" in the 50's
- I Dream of a Genie couldn't show bellybuttons in the 60's
- South park and Tosh.0 are always pushing censorship boundries
-But controversy can boost ratings
-Miley Cyrus at the VMA's
-Repeat what works
-Sequels, remakes, copycat shows, spin-offs, and re-releases
Main Sources of Revenue:
1. Consumer purchases: going to the movies, subscribing to cable, satellite or on-demand online streaming services, and buying magazines, e-books, or DVDs.
2. Advertising: sole support for several other
media, including broadcast TV and radio and much of the Internet.
• print media: circulation size
• live TV and radio: ratings
• Web sites and streamed TV content
messages: broad appeal to attract the millions of viewers that the networks need in order to sell profitable advertising time.
ex: The Super Bowl is such a widely popular
event that the cost of advertising is extremely expensive:
Traditional way for networks to capture broad audiences has been to rely on:
• low culturee*: entertainment that appeals to most people's baser instincts, typified by lurid, sensational images and news stories charged with sex, violence, scandal, and abuse
• programming that doesn't require a great deal of thought or cultural sophistication,
• Narrative Complexityy*: complicated plots and connections between characters, a blurring of reality and fantasy, and time that is not always linear or chronological.
The explosion of media choices has allowed audiences to become more demanding, and there is money to be made in meeting that demand.
• Narrowcastingg*: process of targeting
narrower, more specific audiences.
Media industries can tap into
smaller often passionate audiences
• Shows to generate a loyal fan base.
• Viewers "binge" watch
• Fans can also provide reviews or discuss show content online with others. It takes a unique show to withstand this level of viewer scrutiny (Gay, 2014).
Niche programming is also increasingly possible because of sources of
revenue besides traditional advertising.
• feature advertisers' products within the shows themselves