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125 terms

AP test 3 Biggers

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Peritonitis
acute inflammation of the peritoneum
Mumps
inflammation and enlargement of the parotid glans accompanied by moderate fever, malaise and extreme pain in the throat.
Root canal therapy
multistep procedure in which all traces of pulp tissue are removed from the pulp cavity and root canals of a badly diseased tooth.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
lower esophageal sphincter fails to close adequately after food has entered the stomach, the stomach contants can reflux (back up) into the inferior portion of the esophagus.
Heart burn
hydrochloric acid from the stomach contents can irritate the esophageal wall, resulting in a burning sensation.
Pylorospasm
the smooth muscle fibers of the sphincter fail to relax normally, so food does not pass easily from the stomach to the small intestine, the stomach becomes overly full, and the infant vomits to relieve the pressure.
Pyloric Stenosis
narrowing of the pyloric sphincter the must be corrected surgically.
Vomiting (emesis)
forcible expulsion of the contents of the upper GI tract throught the mouth.
Pancreatitis
inflammation of the pancreas
acute pancreatitis
associated with heavy alcohol intake. The pancreatic cells may release either trypsin instead of trypsinogen or insufficient amounts of trypsin inhibitor, and the trypsin begins to digest the pancreatic cells.
Pancreatic cancer
affects people over the age of 50 and males more frequently. Cancer of the Pancreas
Jaundice
yellowish coloration of the sclerae, skin, and mucous membranes due to a buildup of a yellow compound called bilirubin.
Liver function tests
blood tests designed to determine the presence of certain chemicals released by liver cells.
gallstones
cholesterol that crystalizes because bile contains either infsufficient bile salts or lecithin or excessive cholesterol.
cholesystectomy
the removal of the gall bladder and its contents
lactose intolerance
undigested lactose in chyme casues fluid to be retained in the feces; bacterial fermantation of the undigested lactose results in the production of gases.
appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix
polyps
slow-developing genign growths that arise from the mucosa of the large intestine.
occult blood
blood that is hidden; it is not detectable by the human eye.
dietary fiber
indigestible plant carbohydrates, such as cellulose, lignin, and pectin-found in fruits vegetables, grains and beans
insouble fiber
does not disolve in water, passes through unchanged. Skins of fruit, wheat and corn kernels.
soluble fiber
does dissolve in water. Forms a gel that slows the passage of material through the tract. Found in beans, oats, broccoli, apples and citrus fruits.
achalasia
a condition caused by malfunction of the myenteric plexus in which the lower esophageal sphincter fails to relax normally as food approaches
bariatric surgery
a surgical procedure that limits the amount of food that can be ingested and absorbed in order to bring about a significant weight loss in obese individuals.
borborygmus
a rumbling noise caused by the propulsion of gas through the intestine
canker sore
a painful ulser on the mucous membrane of the mouth that affects females more than males.
cirrhosis
distorted or scarred liver as a result of chronic inflammation due to hepatitis, chemicals that destroy hepatocytes, parasites that infect the liver, or alcoholism.
colitis
inflammation of the mucosa of the colon and rectum
colonoscopy
the visual examination of the lining of the colon using an elongated, flexible fiber-optic endoscope.
colostomy
the diversion of feces through an opening in the colon.
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing
flatus
air in the stomach or intestine, usually expelled through the anus.
eructation
gas expelled through the mouth
burping
another name for eructation
food poisoning
a suden illness caused by ingesting food or drink contaminated by an infectious microbe or toxin
gastoenteritis
inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestine.
gastroscopy
endoscopic examination of the stomach in which the examiner can view the interior of the stomach directly.
halitosis
foul odor coming from the mouth, also called bad breath.
hemorrhoids
vericosed superior rectal veins.
hernia
protrusion of all or part of an organ through a membrane or cavity wall.
inflammatory bowel disease
inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract.
crohn's disease
inflammation of any part of the gastrointestinal tract in which the inflammation extends from the mucosa through the submucosa, muscularis, and serosa.
Ulcerative colitis
inflammation of the mucosa of the colon and rectum, usually accompanied by rectal bleeding.
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
disease of the entire gastrointestinal tract in which a person reacts to stress by developing sysmptoms associated with alternating patterns of diarrhea and constipation.
irritalbe colon
another name for irritable bowel syndrome
spastic colitis
another name for irritable bowel syndrome
Malabsorption
a number of disorders in which nutrients from food are not absorbed properly.
malocclusion
condition in which the furfaces fo the maxillary and mandibular teeth fit poorly.
nausea
discomfort characterized by a loss of appetite and the sensation of impending vomiting
traveler's diarrhea
infectious disease of the gastrointestinal tract that results in loose, urgent bowel movements. Acquired by ingestion of food or water contaminated with fecal matter.
acidosis
an abnormally low blood ph
ketoacidosis
an abnormally low blood ph
phenylketonuria (PKU)
genetic error of protein matabolism characterized by elevated blood levels of the amino acid phenylaline.
hypothermia
a lowering of the core temperature to 35c or 95F or below.
emotional eating
eating in response to emotional drives, such as feeling bored, stressed, or tired.
hypervitaminosis
dietary intake of a vitamin that exceeds the ability of the body to utilize, store, and excrete the vitamin.
hypovitaminosis
vitamin deficiency.
Bulimia
overeating at least twice a week followed by induces vomiting, strict dieting, fasting, vigorous exercise, use of laxitives or diuretics.
heat cramps
cramps that result from profuse sweating
heat exhaustion
core temperature is generally normal, or below and the skin is moist due to profuse perspiration.
heatstroke
caused by exposure to high temperatures , especially when the relative humidity is high., making it difficult for the body to loose heat.
kwashiorkor
a disorder in which protein intake is deficient despite normal or nearly normal choloric intake.
malnutrition
an imbalance of total caloric intake or inake of specific nutrients, which can be either inadequate or excessive.
marasmus
a type of protein-calorie undernutrition that results from inadequate intake of both protein and calories.
Nephroptosis (floating kidney)
inferior displacement or dropping of the kidney
kidney transplant
transfer of a kidney from a donor to a recipient whose kidneys no longer function.
glucosuria
glucose remains in the urine
diuretics
substances that slow renal reabsorption of water and cause elevated urine flow which reduces blood volume.
dialysis
cleaning the blood artificially
hemodialysis
filter the patients blood.
peritoneal dialysis
peritoneum of the abdominal cavity is used as the dialysis membrane to filter the blood.
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)
peritoneal dialysis done at home.
cystoscope
direct examination fo the mucosa of the urethra and urinary bladder and prostate in males.
urinary incontinence
lack of voluntary control over micturition
stress incontinence
common type in females results from the weakness of the deep muscles of the pelvic floor.
urge incontinence
most common in older people. Abrupt and intense urge to urinate followed by a involuntary loss of urine.
overflow incontinence
involunary leakage of small amounts of urine caused by blockage or weak contractions of the urinary bladder.
functional incontinence
urine loss resulting from the inability to get to a toilet facility in time as a result of stroke, arthritis or alzheimer disease.
Azotemia
presence of urea or other nitrogen containing substances in the blood
cystocele
hernia of the urinary bladder
diabetic kidney disease
caused by diabetes melitus in which glomeruli are damaged.
dysuria
painful urination
enuresis
involuntary voiding of urine after the age at which voluntary control has typically been attained.
hydronephrosis
swelling of the kidney due to dilation of renal pelvis and calyces as a result of an obstruction to the flow of urine.
nephropathy
any disease of the kidneys
nocturnal enuresis
discharge of urine during sleep.
nocturia
same as nocturnal enuresis
polyuria
excessive urine formation
stricture
narrowing of the lumen of a canal or hollow organ.
uremia
toxic levels of urea in the blood as a result of malfunction of the kindeys.
urinary retention
a failure to completely or normally void urine.
Dental Caries
tooth decay
Dextran
causes dental carries, a sticky polysaccharide produced from sucrose.
Dental Plaque
masses of bacterial cells, dextran, and other debris adhering to teeth.
Periodontal Disease
variety of conditions characterized by inflammation and degeneration of the gingivae, alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and cementum.
Pyorrhea
inlargement and inflammation of the soft tissue and bleeding of the gums.
Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)
ulcer that develops in the GI tract
Ulcer
a createrlike lesion in a membrane
Peptic Ulcer
ulcers that develop in areas of the GI tract exposed to acidic gastric juice.
Diverticular Disease
saclike outpouching of the wall of the colon and become inflammed.
Diverticula
saclike outpouching of the wall of the colon
Diverticulosis
development of diverticula
Diverticulitis
inflammation of the diverticulata
Colorectal Cancer
deadliest of malignancies.
Hepatitis
inflammation of the liver
Piles
another name for Hemorrhoids
Spasitic Colon
irritable bowel syndrome
Carbohydrate Loading
eating large amounts of complex carbohydrates before an event
Anorexia Nervosa
a chronic disorder characterized by self-induced weight loss, negative perception of body image, and physiological changes that result from nutritional depletion.
Fever
elevation of core temperature caused by resetting of the hypothalmic thermostat.
Pyrogen
a fever-producing substance
Chill
skin remains cold, and shivering occurs
Crisis
skin becomes warm and the person begins to sweat. Pahse of the fever that indicates that core temperature is falling.
Obesity
body weight more than 20% above a desired standard due to an excessive accumulation of adipose tissue.
Renal Calculi
the crystals of salts present in urine occasionally precipitate and solidify into soluble stones
Shock wave Lithotripsy
procedure that uses high-energy shock waves to disintegrate kidney stones .
Tract Infection (UTI)
infection of a part of the urinary system or the presence of large number of microbes in the urine.
Glomerular Diseases
conditions that damage the kidney glomeruli.
Glomerulonephritis
inflammation of the kidney that involves the glomeruli
Nephrotic Syndrome
condition characterized by proteinuria and hyperlipidemia.
Acute Renal Failure (ARF)
renal failure is a decrease or cessation of glomerular filtration.
Chronic Renal Failure (CRF)
procressive and usually irreversible decline in glomerular filtration rate.
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)
kidney tubules become riddled with hundreds or thousands of cysts.
Urinary Bladder Cancer
strikes over 50 years of age and is three times more likely to develop in males than females.
Intravenoius Pylelogram
radiograph of the kidneys, ureters, and urinary bladder after venous injection of a radiopaque contrast medium.