Chapter 13, 14 World Hist.
Terms in this set (46)
What were the Middle Ages?
The gradual decline of the Roman Empire ushered in an era of European history called the Middle Ages, or the Medieval Period.
Disruption of trade:
Merchants faced invasions from both land and sea. Their businesses collapsed. The breakdown of trade destroyed Europe's cities as economic centers.
Downfall of cities:
With the fall of the Roman Empire cities were abandoned as centers of administration.
As Roman centers of trade and government collapsed, nobles returned to the rural areas. Roman cities were left without strong leadership.
Decline of learning:
The Germanic invaders who stormed Rome could not read or write. Among Romans themselves the level of learning sank sharply as more & more families left.
Loss of a common language:
As German-speaking peoples mixed with the Roman population, Latin changed.
What was the difference between Roman society and Germanic communities concerning the concept of government?
Unlike Romans, Germanic peoples lived in small communities that were governed by unwritten rules & traditions.
Who was Clovis?
The Franks' leader.
What is a monastery? What did a person do at a monastery?
To adapt to rural conditions the church built religious communities called monasteries.
How were monasteries tied to education?
Monks opened schools, maintained libraries, and copied books.
Describe the changes Gregory I made to the papacy (the role of the pope).
Used church revenues to raise armies, repair roads, and help the poor. Also negotiated peace treaties with invaders.
What is a "mayor of the palace"?
Describe Charles Martel's power (what did he do).
Mayor of the palace, he did everything.
Worldly power involved in politics.
What was the Carolingian Dynasty? How did they get their power?
he Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
How did Charlemagne build such a great empire?
Appointed counts to supervise local administration of justice and raising armies. Other administrators to supervise courts, and collect tolls and taxes sent reps throughout countryside to relay instructions and check up on admins.
Where were the Vikings from?
Who were the Magyars and what did they do?
The Magyars were a nomadic people who attacked from the east in what is no Hungary. They were superb horsemen who attacked villages, monasteries, Italy and other parts of Western Europe. The goal of the Magyars was not to settle in land, but to take captives to sell as slaves
What is feudalism?
The dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection.
In exchange for military protection and other services, a lord, or landowner, granted land called a fief.
Land that was granted.
The person receiving a fief was called a vassal.
Knights were mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lords' lands in exchange for fiefs.
Serfs were people who could not lawfully leave the place where they were born.
The manor was the lord's estate.
Define Chivalry? How did Chivalry affect a knight's daily life (give examples)?
A complex set of ideals, demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of three masters. He devoted himself to his earthly feudal lord, his heavenly Lord, and his chosen lady. The chivalrous knight also protected the weak and the poor. The ideal knight was loyal, brave, and courteous.
Under the feudal system, a noblewoman
could inherit an estate from her husband. Upon
her lord's request, she could also send his knights to
war. When her husband was off fighting, the lady of a
medieval castle might act as military commander and a
warrior. At times, noblewomen played a key role in
defending castles. They hurled rocks and fired arrows
at attackers. In reality, however, the lives of most noblewomen were limited. Whether young or old, females in noble families generally were confined to activities in the home or the convent. Also, noblewomen held little property because lords passed down their fiefs to sons and not to daughters.
For the vast majority of women of the lower classes, life had remained unchanged for centuries. Peasant women performed endless labor around the home and often in the fields, bore children, and took care of their families. Young peasant girls learned practical household skills from their mother at an early age, unlike daughters in rich households who were educated by tutors. Females in peasant families were poor and powerless.
How did religion work as a unifying force?
Provided Christians with a sense of security.
What was canon law?
Canon law is the body of laws and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
What were the two harshest punishments handed down from the church (describe them)?
Two of the harshest punishments that
offenders faced were excommunication and interdict.
Popes used the threat of excommunication, or banishment from the Church, to wield power over political rulers. For example, a disobedient king's quarrel with a pope might result in excommunication. This meant the king would be denied salvation. Excommunication also freed all the king's vassals from their duties to him. If an excommunicated king continued to disobey the pope, the pope, in turn, could use an even more frightening weapon, the interdict.
Under an interdict, many sacraments and religious services could not be performed in the king's lands. As Christians, the king's subjects believed that without such sacraments they might be doomed to hell. In the 11th century, excommunication and the possible threat of an interdict would force a German emperor to submit to the pope's commands.
What was the Holy Roman Empire?
The German-Italian empire Otto created was first called the Roman Empire of the German Nation. It later became the Holy Roman Empire.
What was lay investiture?
The Church was not happy that kings, such as Otto, had control over clergy and their offices. It especially resented the practice of lay investiture, a ceremony in
which kings and nobles appointed church officials.
What was the Curia and what were it's duties?
The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy and the central body through which the Roman Pontiff conducts the affairs of the universal Catholic Church.
What were tithes used for?
One tenth of annual produce or earnings, formerly taken as a tax for the support of the church and clergy.
What happened in the Second Crusade?
The Second Crusade was announced by Pope Eugene III, and was the first of the crusades to be led by European kings, namely Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, with help from a number of other European nobles. The armies of the two kings marched separately across Europe.
What was the inquisition?
The Inquisition was an ecclesiastical court and process of the Roman Catholic Church setup for the purpose towards the discovery and punishment of heresy which wielded immense power and brutality in medieval and early modern times.
What was the Commercial Revolution?
The Commercial Revolution was a period of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism which lasted from approximately the late 13th century until the early 18th century. It was succeeded in the mid-18th century by the Industrial Revolution.
What was the Magna Carta?
Magna Carta (Latin for "the Great Charter"), also called Magna Carta Libertarian (Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), is a charter agreed by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Who was Hugh Capet?
Hugh Capet was the first King of the Franks of the House of Capet from his election in 987 until his death. He succeeded the last Carolingian king, Louis V.
What was the Great Schism?
The French pope lived in Avignon, while the Italian pope lived in Rome. This began the split in the Church known as the Great Schism, or division.
How was the plague spread?
Black rats carried fleas that were infested with a bacillus
called Yersinia pestis. Because people did not bathe, almost all had fleas and lice. In addition, medieval people threw their garbage and sewage into the streets. These unsanitary streets became breeding grounds for more rats. The fleas carried by rats leapt from person to person, thus spreading the bubonic plague with incredible speed.
What was the Hundred Years War?
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, rulers of the Kingdom of France, for control of the latter kingdom.
What happened to Joan of Arc?
Joan of Arc was 19 when she was burnt at the stake in Rouen by the English on 30 May, 1431. She died of smoke inhalation. The Cardinal of Winchester is recorded as having ordered her to be burnt a second time.
List four effects of the plague:
1. Town populations fell.
2. Trade declined. Prices rose.
3. The serfs left the manor in search of better wages.
4. Nobles fiercely resisted peasant demands for higher wages, causing peasant revolts in England, France, Italy,
List three outcomes of the Hundred Years' War:
1. A feeling of nationalism emerged in England and
France. Now people thought of the king as a national
leader, fighting for the glory of the country, not simply a feudal lord.
2. The power and prestige of the French monarch increased.
3. The English suffered a period of internal turmoil
known as the War of the Roses, in which two noble
houses fought for the throne.