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-move substances in body
-regulate organ volume
separates muscle from skin
-protects muscle from trauma
-protects against shock (insulates)
-carries blood vessels/nerves
it groups muscles with similar functions together
-it fills spaces b/w muscles
-it carries nerves/blood vessels/lymphatic vessels
-myoglobin--reddish pigment. stores and releases 02 in aerobic reaction.
-H Zone: only myosin
-A Band: both actin and myosin
-I band: only actin
-M line: marks center of the H-Zone
-Z discs: mark center of I-Band
-----anchors thin filaments
titin: responsible for elasticity
Myomesine: form M-line
Nebulin: ensures alignment of thin filaments
Dystrohin: carries tension from sacromere to tendon.
1.) Ca++ is released from sarcoplasmic reticulum
2.) Ca++ binds to troponin and changes its shape
3.) Tropomyosin moves out of the way
4.) Myosin can now reach actin
5.) myosin heads use ATP and move actin (contraction)
Muscle Energy source
1.) Creatine Phosphate: 1 ATP---15 seconds
2.) Anaerobic cellular respiration: 2 ATP---30-60 seconds
3.) aerobic respiration: 36-38 ATP hours--need O2
a brief contraction of all muscle fibers in a motor unit in response to single action potential
the increased strength of contraction resulting from the application of second stimulus before the muscle has completely relaxed after a previous stimulus. (fused/complete or unfused/imcomplete)
Skeletal fiber types
1.) Based on content of Myoglobin
a. increased myoglobin = dark meat fibers
b. decreased myoglobin = white meat fibers
2.) Based on structural function
a. Aerobic--oxidative fiber (fast/slow)
b. Anaerobic--Glycolytic fibers (fast)
-in the walls of the heart
-fibers have intercalated discs (desmosomes & gap junction)
-contractions are longer than skeletal
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