APES Ch 13
Terms in this set (98)
planting trees and rops together
plaiting of crops in strips with rows of trees or shrubs on each side
dung and urine of animals used as a form of organic fertilizer
growing and harvesting of fish and shellfish for human use in freshwater ponds, irrigation ditches, and lakes, or in cages or fenced-in areas of coastal lagoons and estuaries
an ongoing condition suffered by people who cannot grow or buy enough food to meet their basic energy need
commercial inorganic ferilizer
commercially prepared mixture of plant nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates, and potassium applied to the soil to restore fertility and increase crop yields
partially decomposed organic plant and animal matter used as a soil conditioner or fertilizer
crop cultivation in which the soil is disturbed little (minimum-tillage farming) or nat at all (no-till farming) to reduce soil erosion, lower labour costs, and save energy
Plowing and planting across the changing slope of land, rather than in straight lines, to help retain water and reduce soil erosion.
Crop cultivation method in which a planting surface is made by plowing land, breaking up the exposed soil, and then smoothing the surface. Compare conservation-tillage farming.
Planting a field, or an area of a field, with different crops from year to year to reduce soil nutrient depletion. A plant such as corn, tobacco, or cotton, which removes large amounts of nitrogen from the soil, is planted one year. The next year a legume such as soybeans, which adds nitrogen to the soil, is planted
Conversion of rangeland, rain-fed cropland, or irrigated cropland to desertlike land, with a drop in agricultural productivity of 10% or more. It usually is caused by a combination of overgrazing, soil erosion, prolonged drought, and climate change.
Widespread malnutrition and starvation in a particular area because of a shortage of food, usually caused by drought, war, flood, earthquake, or other catastrophic events that disrupt food production and distribution
Confined outdoor or indoor space used to raise hundreds to thousands of domesticated livestock. Compare rangeland.
Substance that adds inorganic or organic plant nutrients to soil and improves its ability to grow crops, trees, or other vegetation
Form of aquaculture in which fish are cultivated in a controlled pond or other environment and harvested when they reach the desired size
Form of aquaculture in which members of a fish species such as salmon are held in captivity for the first few years of their lives, released, and then harvested as adults when they return from the ocean to their freshwater birthplace to spawn
Concentrations of particular aquatic species suitable for commercial harvesting in a given ocean area or inland body of water.
Every person in a given area has daily access to enough nutritious food to have an active and healthy life.
Chemical that kills fungi
Freshly cut or still-growing green vegetation that is plowed into the soil to increase the organic matter and humus available to support crop growth
Popular term for introduction of scientifically bred or selected varieties of grain (rice, wheat, maize) that, with high enough inputs of fertilizer and water, can greatly increase crop yields.
Occurs when rivulets of fast-flowing water join together to cut wider and deeper ditches or gullies.
Chemical that kills a plant or inhibits its growth.
Suffered when people cannot grow or buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs
Using large inputs of energy from fossil fuels (especially oil and natural gas), water, fertilizer, and pesticides to produce large quantities of crops and livestock for domestic and foreign sale.
Chemical that kills insects.
integrated pest management (IPM)
Combined use of biological, chemical, and cultivation methods in proper sequence and timing to keep the size of a pest population below the size that causes economically unacceptable loss of a crop or livestock animal.
Growing two or more different crops at the same time on a plot. For example, a carbohydrate-rich grain that depletes soil nitrogen and a protein-rich legume that adds nitrogen to the soil may be intercropped.
Simultaneously growing a variety of crops on the same plot.
Occurs when natural or human-induced processes decrease the future ability of land to support crops, livestock, or wild species.
Faulty nutrition, caused by a diet that does not supply an individual with enough protein, essential fats, vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients needed for good health
Ability of a living cell or organism to capture and transform matter and energy from its environment to supply its needs for survival, growth, and reproduction.
Chemical elements that organisms need in small or even trace amounts to live, grow, or reproduce. Examples are sodium, zinc, copper, chlorine, and iodine
Cultivation of a single crop, usually on a large area of land. Compare polyculture, polyvarietal cultivation
Producing crops and livestock naturally by using organic fertilizer (manure, legumes, compost) and natural pest control (bugs that eat harmful bugs, plants that repel bugs, and environmental controls such as crop rotation) instead of using commercial inorganic fertilizers and synthetic pesticides and herbicides. See sustainable agriculture.
Organic material such as animal manure, green manure, and compost, applied to cropland as a source of plant nutrients. Compare commercial inorganic fertilizer.
Diet so high in calories, saturated (animal) fats, salt, sugar, and processed foods and so low in vegetables and fruits that the consumer runs high risks of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and other health hazards. Compare malnutrition, undernutrition.
Unwanted organism that directly or indirectly interferes with human activities.
Any chemical designed to kill or inhibit the growth of an organism that people consider undesirable. See fungicide, herbicide, insecticide.
Growing specialized crops such as bananas, coffee, and cacao in tropical developing countries, primarily for sale to developed countries.
Complex form of intercropping in which a large number of different plants maturing at different times are planted together. See also intercropping. Compare monoculture, polyvarietal cultivation.
Planting a plot of land with several varieties of the same crop. Compare intercropping, monoculture, polyculture.
Accumulation of salts in soil that can eventually make the soil unable to support plant growth.
occurs when surface water or wind peel off fairly thin sheets or layers of soil
Clearing a plot of ground in a forest, especially in tropical areas, and planting crops on it for a few years (typically 2-5 years) until the soil is depleted of nutrients or the plot has been invaded by a dense growth of vegetation from the surrounding forest. Then a new plot is cleared and the process is repeated. The abandoned plot cannot successfully grow crops for 10[[endash]]30 years. See also slash-and-burn cultivation.
Cutting down trees and other vegetation in a patch of forest, leaving the cut vegetation on the ground to dry, and then burning it. The ashes that are left add nutrients to the nutrient-poor soils found in most tropical forest areas. Crops are planted between tree stumps. Plots must be abandoned after a few years (typically 2-5 years) because of loss of soil fertility or invasion of vegetation from the surrounding forest. See also shifting cultivation.
Methods used to reduce soil erosion, prevent depletion of soil nutrients, and restore nutrients already lost by erosion, leaching, and excessive crop harvesting.
Movement of soil components, especially topsoil, from one place to another, usually by wind, flowing water, or both. This natural process can be greatly accelerated by human activities that remove vegetation from soil.
Planting regular crops and close-growing plants, such as hay or nitrogen-fixing legumes, in alternating rows or bands to help reduce depletion of soil nutrients.
Supplementing solar energy with energy from human labor and draft animals to produce enough food to feed oneself and family members; in good years enough food may be left over to sell or put aside for hard times. Compare industrialized agriculture.
Method of growing crops and raising livestock based on organic fertilizers, soil conservation, water conservation, biological pest control, and minimal use of nonrenewable fossil-fuel energy.
Planting crops on a long, steep slope that has been converted into a series of broad, nearly level terraces with short vertical drops from one to another that run along the contour of the land to retain water and reduce soil erosion.
traditional intensive agriculture
Producing enough food for a farm family's survival and perhaps a surplus that can be sold. This type of agriculture uses higher inputs of labor, fertilizer, and water than traditional subsistence agriculture. See traditional subsistence agriculture. Compare industrialized agriculture.
traditional subsistence agriculture
Production of enough crops or livestock for a farm family's survival and, in good years, a surplus to sell or put aside for hard times. Compare industrialized agriculture, traditional intensive agriculture.
Consuming insufficient food to meet one's minimum daily energy needs for a long enough time to cause harmful effects. Compare malnutrition, overnutrition.
Saturation of soil with irrigation water or excessive precipitation so that the water table rises close to the surface.
Row of trees or hedges planted to partially block wind flow and reduce soil erosion on cultivated land.
What are the three primary crops that feed the world?
rice, corn, wheat
What supplies most of the world's food?
True or false? Industrialized agriculture occurs on 50% of all cropland in the world.
Describe the first green revolution
using high inputs or pesticides and fertilizers to increase crop yields in developing countries
True of false? Traditional subsistence farming provides a higher ratio of units of food energy to units of input energy than does U.S. industrialized farming
True of False? Polyvarietal cultivation refers to planting several different species of crops in the same plot
What is the main agent of erosion?
One way to reduce soil desertification is to...
Salinization of soil can be a by-product of what?
Compared to conventional-tillage farming, conservation tillage does what?
Reduces soil erosion
What is the most controversial method of increasing food production?
True or false? Most of the meat in the U.S. is produced in pastures.
Environmentalists believe that agricultural subsidies should be used for what?
Protecting soil quality
What type of pesticides are toxic to many species?
What is another name for organic farming?
According to the FAO, as much as _____ of the food produced worldwide is lost through spoilage, inefficient processing and preparation, and plate waste.
Genetically engineered strain of rice containing beta-carotene that can supply vitamin A to the malnourished
How many people in developing countries cannot grow or buy the food they need?
One out of six
What is the root cause of hunger and malnutrition?
every person in a given are has daily access to enough nutritious food to have an active and healthy life
Protein, carbohydrates, and fat
Vitamins such as A,C, and E
Name several ways to reduce childhood deaths from nutrition-related causes.
Immunize children, encourage breast feeding, prevent dehydration from diarrhea, prevent blindness from vitamin A deficiency, provide family planning, and increase education for women.
What can over-nutrition and lack of exercise lead to?
Reduced life quality, poor health, and premature death.
About how much of the world's food supply is produced by industrialized agriculture?
The U.S. uses industrialized agriculture to produce about how much of the world's grain?
True or false? Research has shown that on average low input polyculture produces higher yields than high input monoculture.
fast-flowing little rivulets of surface water make small channels
fast-flowing water join together to cut wider and deeper ditches or gullies
Soil erosion is increased through what types of activities?
farming, logging, construction, overgrazing, and off-road vehicles
What is the 1985 Food Security Act (Farm Act)?
farmers receive a subsidy for taking highly erodible land out of production and replanting it with soil saving plants for 10-15 years.
About how much of the world's land has lost some of its productivity because of drought and human activities that reduce or degrade topsoil?
Repeated irrigation can reduce crop yields by doing what?
causing salt buildup in the soil and water-logging of crop plants.
Benefits of conservation-tillage farming
Increases crop yield, raises soil carbo content, lowers water use, lowers pesticides, uses less tractor fuel
Three main approaches government uses to influence food production
control prices, provide subsidies, and let the marketplace decide.
How can we increase food security?
Slow down populations growth, sharply reduce poverty, and slow down environmental degradation of the world's soils and croplands
What did Rachel Carson do?
She wrote Silent Spring which introduced the U.S. to the dangers of the pesticide DDT and related compounds to the environment
What qualities does the ideal pest-killing chemical have?
Kills only the target pest, doesn't cause genetic resistance in the target organism, disappears or breaks down into harmless chemicals after doing its job, is more cost-effective than doing nothing.
resistant to pesticidesd
Many scientist urge the USDA to use what three strategies to promote IPM in the U.S.?
Add a 2% sales tax on pesticides, establish federally supported IPM demonstration project for farmers, and train USDA personnel and county farm agents in the IPM