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Crimean War

a war in Crimea between Russia and a group of nations including England and France and Turkey and Sardinia

Florence Nightingale

English nurse remembered for her work during the Crimean War (1820-1910)

2nd French Republic

2nd began in 1848 with the election of Louis Napoleon. 3rd started with Theirs

2nd French Empire

was the Imperial Bondpartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the second republic and the trid republic in France

Napoleon III

Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, and elected emperor of France from 1852-1870, he invaded Mexico when the Mexican government couldn't repay loans from French bankers. He sent in an army and set up a new government under Maximillian. He refused Lincoln's request that France withdraw. After the Civil War, the U.S. sent an army to enforce the request and Napoleon withdrew.

Falloux Law

Law under little Napoleon: put education in the hands of the church.

Syllabus of Errors

A document by the pope in which he denounced rationalism, socialism, religious liberty, and separation of the church and state.

King Victor Emmanuel

first king of unified italy, appointed by cavour

Il Risorgimento

Italy's unification and expulsion of foreign powers.

Giusseppe Garibaldi

became an expert in Guerrilla warfare. He led the red shirts in conquering much of southern Italy. He then met with Victor E and Count Cavour and agreed to give up all of his conquered lands in order to creat a united Italy


Prussian economic union, removed tariff barriers between German states, in step toward political unity

Otto von Bismarck

German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united (1815-1898)

Gap theory

claim that God created a complete "first creation" in Genesis 1:1 and this creation may have lasted even billions of years - then during fall of Satan "first creation" was destroyed and "earth became without form and void - thus God recreated the earth

Prussian-Danish War

war over danish accension

Austro-Prussian War 1866

June 15-Aug. 23, 1866, between Prussia, allied with Italy, and Austria, seconded by Bavaria, Württemberg, Saxony, Hanover, Baden, and several smaller German states. It was deliberately provoked by Bismarck , over the objections of his king, in order to expel Austria from the German Confederation as a step toward the unification of Germany under Prussian dominance.


Seated Germany's lower house of Parlimrent, it burned in 1933 and Hitler blamed it on the communist, this event led to Hitler becoming the absolute dictator in Germany.


The lower house in the German federal system; most legislative activity occurs in this house.

Franco-Prussian War 1870

Bismarck rallies German against Napoleon III when he opposes a Prussian king on the Spanish throne, France not prepared for war, Prussian victory in a few weeks

Ems Dispatch

A message from William I of Prussia to Napoleon III which brought France into the Franco Prussian war.


Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (German: Ausgleich) established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. It was signed by Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria and a Hungarian delegation

Austro-Hungarian Empire

Also known as Austria-Hungary, or the Hapsburg Empire, as it was ruled by the Habsburg monarchy from 1867 to 1918. Austria-Hungary extended over most of central Europe. It was composed the modern day countries of Austria, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic, as well as parts of present-day Poland, Romania, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

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