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All of the following are contained in an amino acid except

an aldehyde group

Which of the following is not an essential amino acid in human nutrition?


In comparison to the well-defined structure of starch, which of the following is the most important factor that allows for the synthesis of thousands of different proteins?

Number of different amino acids

The function of a protease is to

hydrolyze proteins

Pepsinogen is also known as a(n)


After digestion of proteins, what products are absorbed into the circulation?

Free amino acids, and a few dipeptides and tripeptides

What is an oligopeptide?

A string of about 4-9 amino acids

All of the following are fates of amino acids in the intestinal tract except

some may be used for synthesis of gastric protease

Your cousin Wanda was born with a genetic defect affecting her digestion, namely, a lack of intestinal villus tripeptidases and dipeptidases. Which of the following digestive processes would not take place?

Peptides → amino acids

What is the relationship between body proteins and water?

Proteins attract water

All of the following describe associations between protein nutrition and the body's water balance except

excessive protein losses by the kidney may lead to dehydration

Which of the following describes the structure of an antibody?

Huge protein molecule

How many grams of nitrogen are contained in a 2500-kcalorie diet that provides 15% of the energy as protein?


Which of the following may be used to determine protein utilization?

Nitrogen balance

When amino acids are deaminated, the immediate products are ammonia and often a

keto acid

Which of the following compounds does not contain nitrogen?


Which of the following are precursors of urea synthesis?

all amino acids

What is the process whereby an amino group is combined with a keto acid to form an amino acid?


Which of the following describes the state of nitrogen balance for a normal, healthy 35-year-old person who weighs 60 kg and consumes a diet that provides 75 g of protein and adequate energy?


In the metabolism of amino acids for energy, what is the fate of the amino group?

excreted as urea

A prominent result of transamination reactions is the synthesis of

nonessential amino acids

Which of the following could not be a limiting amino acid in the diet?


Relative to animal proteins, which of the following amino acids is present in lesser amounts in proteins of legumes?


Acute protein-energy malnutrition in children is characterized by

low weight for height

Which of the following is associated with the presence of tissue edema in kwashiorkor?

Low concentration of blood protein

Which of the following conditions is associated with edema?

Diminished concentration of blood proteins and hormones, which causes fluid to leak from the blood vessels

In kwashiorkor, the loss of hair color is indirectly related to

inadequate intake of tyrosine

Excessive amounts of homocysteine in the blood are thought to increase the risk for

heart disease

Supplements of which of the following amino acids are reported to lower blood pressure and reduce homocysteine levels?


All of the following are known to raise homocysteine levels except

excess arginine intake.

Which of the following is a feature of homocysteine?

It is increased in the blood of coffee drinkers

Which of the following describes a relationship between protein/amino acids and heart disease?

Elevated blood homocysteine levels are associated with smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol

In relation to the range of protein intake as a percentage of energy intake, what would be the highest safe level of protein intake for a 60-kg adult ingesting 2500 kcalories?

219 g

Which of the following describes a relationship between protein intake and calcium metabolism?

Calcium excretion rises with increasing intake of animal-derived proteins

What is the RDA for protein for a 48-kg woman?

38 g

If protein needs are expressed per kilogram of body weight, which of the following describes the requirements of infants?

Greater than adults

What is the percentage of total energy derived from protein in a diet containing 50 grams of protein and 2000 kcalories?


If a person consumes 65 grams of protein and a total of 2700 kcalories per day, approximately what percentage of energy would be derived from protein?


Approximately how many grams of protein are found in one quart of milk?


In photosynthesis, the plant uses energy from the sun, plus water and carbon dioxide, to synthesize

carbohydrates only

What term is specific to reactions in which simple compounds are combined into more complex molecules?


Which of the following reactions is an example of an anabolic reaction?

Cholesterol synthesis from acetyl CoA molecules

The formation of glycogen by the liver cell is an example of


Which of the following is an example of a catabolic reaction?

Urea formation from an amino acid

The basic units derived from food include all of the following except


Approximately what percentage of the body's energy expenditure is furnished by amino acids?

10 to 15

Which of the following can not be formed from acetyl CoA molecules?


Which of the following can not be formed from pyruvate in human beings?

Linoleic acid

The Cori cycle involves the interconversion of

lactate and glucose.

Which of the following is not a possible fate of metabolized glucose?


Which of the following nutrients can be made from compounds composed of 2-carbon skeletons?

fatty acids

Which of the following is a possible fate of acetyl CoA?

synthesis to fatty acids

hat is the first product of fatty acid catabolism?

Acetyl CoA

Fatty acid oxidation results in the direct production of

acetyl CoA.

Production of excessive amounts of acetyl CoA molecules leads to the synthesis of

fatty acids only

Which of the following compounds cannot be formed from fatty acids?


Which of the following dietary components cannot be used to synthesize and store glycogen?

animal fats

Which of the following cannot be used to make body proteins?

fatty acids

An immediate consequence of a cellular deficiency of oxaloacetate is a slowing of

the TCA cycle

All of the following may serve as precursors for oxaloacetate synthesis except


Which of the following leads to the production of urea?

Oxidation of amino acids

When energy-yielding nutrients are consumed in excess, which one(s) can lead to storage of fat?

Fat, carbohydrate, and protein

If the carbohydrate content of the diet is insufficient to meet the body's needs for glucose, which of the following can be converted to glucose?

Amino acids

When protein consumption is in excess of body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and the energy in the molecules is

stored as glycogen and fat.

Which of the following accounts for the higher energy density of a fatty acid compared with the other energy-yielding nutrients?

Fatty acids have a greater percentage of hydrogen-carbon bonds

Approximately how many ATP molecules are synthesized from the complete oxidation of a molecule of palmitic acid?


Which of the following can be synthesized from all three energy-yielding nutrients?

Acetyl CoA

How does excess carbohydrate intake contribute to obesity?

It spares oxidation of body fat and dietary fat

All of the following are features of the metabolism of surplus dietary carbohydrate in human beings except

It spares oxidation of body fat and dietary fat

ll of the following are features of the metabolism of surplus dietary carbohydrate in human beings except

excess glucose is oxidized only very slowly.

During the first few days of a fast, what energy source provides about 90% of the glucose needed to fuel the body?


A feature of ketosis is that it

occurs when fats are partially oxidized

How are ketones formed?

Condensation of acetyl CoA molecules

Which of the following is classified as a ketone body?


Adverse side effects of typical low-carbohydrate diets include all of the following except

high blood pressure

Which of the following plays a major role in regulating the elimination of alcohol from the body?

Liver alcohol dehydrogenase

What is acetaldehyde?

An intermediate in alcohol metabolism

Excess alcohol intake leads to a reduction in the synthesis rate of

liver glucose

The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in people with chronic alcohol abuse stems primarily from a deficiency of


Chronic excess alcohol intake leads to all of the following effects on folate except

the small intestine recycles more folate.

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