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Chapter 4

Timeline of the Evolution of Workforce Diversity

- 1960s to 1970s
- Early 1980s
- Late 1980s
- Late 1980s to Late 1990s
- New Millennium

1960s to 1970s

(Timeline - Evolution of WF Diversity)
Focus on complying with laws and regulations:
- Title VII of Civil Rights Act; Equal
Employment Opportunity Commission;
affirmative action policies and programs

Early 1980s

(Timeline - Evolution of WF Diversity)
Focus on assimilating minorities and women into corporate setting:
- Corporate programs developed to help
improve self-confidence and
qualifications of diverse individuals so
they can "fit in"

Late 1980s

(Timeline - Evolution of WF Diversity)
Concept of workforce diversity expanded from compliance to an issue of business survival:
- Publication of Workforce 2000 opened
business leaders' eyes about the future
composition of workforce-that is, more
diverse; first use of term workforce

Late 1980s to Late 1990s

(Timeline - Evolution of WF Diversity)
Focus on fostering sensitivity:
- Shift from compliance and focussing only
on women and minorities to including
everyone; making employees more aware
and sensitive to the needs and
differences of others

New Millennium

(Timeline - Evolution of WF Diversity)
Focus on diversity and inclusion for business success:
- Workforce diversity seen as core business
issue; important to achieve business
success, profitability, and growth

Forms of Discrimination

- Discriminatory Policies or Practices
- Sexual Harassment
- Intimidation
- Mockery and Insults
- Exclusion
- Incivility

Discriminatory Policies or Practices

(Forms of Discrimination)
Actions taken by representatives of the organization that deny equal opportunity to perform or unequal rewards for performance

Ex) Older workers may be targeted for
layoffs because they are highly paid
and have lucrative benefits

Sexual Harassment

(Forms of Discrimination)
Unwanted sexual advances and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that create a hostile or offensive work environment

Ex) Salespeople at one company went on
company-paid visits to strip clubs,
brought strippers into the office to
celebrate promotions, and fostered
pervasive sexual rumors


(Forms of Discrimination)
Overt threats or bullying directed at members of specific groups of employees

Ex) African American employees at some
companies have found nooses hanging
over their work stations

Mockery and Insults

(Forms of Discrimination)
Jokes or negative stereotypes; sometimes the result of jokes taken too far

Ex) Arab Americans have been asked at
work whether they were carrying
bombs or were members of terrorist


(Forms of Discrimination)
Exclusion of certain people from job opportunities, social events, discussions, or informal mentoring; can occur unintentionally

Ex) Many women in finance claim they are
assigned to marginal job roles or are
given light workloads that don't lead
to promotion


(Forms of Discrimination)
Disrespectful treatment, including behaving in an aggressive manner, interrupting the person, or ignoring his or her opinions

Ex) Female lawyers note that male
attorneys frequently cut them off or
do not adequately address their comments

Sexual Orientation

________ is the diversity factor that has been called the "last acceptable bias."


________ is a managerial style that is traditionally considered to be feminine.

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