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Dorsal Respiratory group
Mainly inspiratory neurons
Send impulses to the motor nerves of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles
Provides the main inspiratory stimulus during normal quiet breathing
Ventral Respiratory Group
Causes inhalation and exhalation
Active when high levels of pulmonary ventilations are required( Exercise)
Pontine Respiratory Centers
Modifies the output of the medullary center
Contains two groups of neurons
Primary function is to control inspiratory time
Controls the "switch off" point of the inspiratory ramp
Sends signals to the DRG causing apneusis
Breathing pattern characterized by prolonged inspiratory gasp with occasional expirations
Hering-Bruer Reflex Control
Acts as a protective mechanism against excess lung inflation
Important in regulating respiratory rate and depth during exercise
Controlled/ Mediated by the phrenic nerve
Activated with sudden collapse of the lungs (I.E. pneumothorax)
Stimulates strong inspiratory efforts
Head's Paradoxical Reflex
Causes Tidal Volumes during exercise
Also Responsible for first breaths of a nerborn
A sensory nerve cell activated by changes in the chemical enviroment surrounding the cell
Come in direct contact with arterial blood where as the central receptors are separated from blood by the CSF
Stimulated by decreased PaO2(Primary Response), increased PaCO2, and Decreased Arterial pH
when a patient has a PCO2 of less than 50 the central chemoreceptors shut down, leaving the patient to breath using peripheral chemoreceptors
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