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Anatomy exam 4 review
Terms in this set (63)
1.Provides extensive gas exchange surface area between air and circulating blood
2. Moves air to and from exchange surface of lungs
3. protects resp surfaces from out env
4. produce sound
5. participates in olfactory (smell)
Major functions of the respiratory System
the organs and structures involved in moving air into and out of the lungs
-nose(external nares + vestibule), pharynx, larynx, bronchial tree
structures involved in gas exchange
lines conductive zones, has cilia on the inner side of the trachea to push contaminants out
what does pseudostratified ciliated columnar do for us?
shared between the digestive and respiratory systems
where are voice box is
has cilia to push contaminants out of respiratory passage
cartilage ring to allow room for the esophagus to stretch when swallowing food
trachea/ What c shape does for us?
.extensive network of capillaries
. Simple squamous epithelium
. where diffusion occurs
. collapse without surfactant
maintains low surface tension
inflammation and constriction of the smooth muscles of the bronchioles and respiratory bronchioles where there is no cartilage holding the passages open and can shut the airway and make breathing very difficult
Right lung- larger has 3 lobes
Left lung- smaller because apex of heart pushes into it has 2 lobes
Where are the lungs located and how many lobes?
medulla oblongata of brain/nervous control breathing
What part of the brain houses the respiratory control center?
Carbon dioxide levels and blood pH
- Respiration increases as co2 levels increase and pH decreases
Carbon dioxide levels and blood pH, Respiration increases as co2 levels increase and pH decreases
. Each lung has own pleural cavity
.Pleura is name for capsule surrounding lung
1. Visceral- innermost (near lung)
2. Parietal- outermost (nearest the thoracic cavity)
-both layers lubricated to protect against friction damage by pleural fluuid
What are the pleura cavities and what it does?
1.Pulmonary Ventilation- physical movement of air in and out of lungs
2. Alveolar- movement of air in and out of alveoli;actual gas exchange
. as diaphragm contracts, volume in the chest cavity increases, presure decreases and air is brought in
. as diaphragm relaxes, volume decreases, pressure increases and air is pushed out
Q- Active inhale, passive exhale
F- active both
Quiet/ forced breathing
elasticity and stretchiness of lungs
. more the lungs stretch more air can be brought in
2.Level of surfactant
3. mobility of rib cage
% of the total volume that one gas makes up/ what creates the pressure gradient that allows for gas exchange in capillaries
D- low partial o2 high partial co2
O- high partial o2 low partial co2
External- pulmonary circuit/gas exchange in lungs/ gas diffusing from air brought into capillaries
Internal- systemic circuit/ gas exchange w/ blood and cells
Difference between internal and external respirtation
Oxygen binds hemoglobin on RBCs
. when partial pressure of O2 of surrounding tissue is low/ when pH is low, temp is high, RBC release oxygen
CO2 travels in the blood as bicarbonate and rest with RBC
1. Alimentary canal also called gastrointestinal system or GI tract
- begins at oral cavity, winds thru abdominal cavity ends at anus
pancreas, liver, gall bladder
What are the two major parts of the digestive system?
M- chewed by teeth and churned by tongue and stomach: break food into small chunks (increase SA to make chemical digestion easier}
C- chemical enzymes breaking food down into smaller molecular components
What is the difference between chemical and mechanical digestion?
anchors the digestive organs to the abdominal cavity and holds everything in the correct place
P- lines abdominal wall
V- in between digestive organs
what is the peritoneum?
Mouth, Pharynx, esophagus
pathway of digestion
swallowing food via peristalsis
Pharyngeal phase (voluntary)
Esophageal phase (involuntary)
two stages of swallowing and which are involuntary and voluntary
HCL gives stomach pH of 2 which activates pepsinogen, pepsinogen is then converted to its active form of pepsin
What is the pH of the stomach
cardia, fundus, body and pylorus
. churns food into chyme
. muscosa layer has deep folds called rugae and gastric pits that lead to gastric glands that secrete gastric juice
. Gastric juice contains pepsin/ an enzyme that breaks down proteins, HCL and mucus
4 major regions of stomach
In what organ of the digestive system does most of the nutrient absorption occur?
Duodenum- smallest portion, closest to stomach, accessory organs dump secretions
Jejunum- most of chemical digestion occurs, Villi (micro) for absorption
Illium- longest portion, drains into large intestine
Three main regions of Small intestine
. Reabsorption of water
. Compaction of intestinal contents into feces
. Absorption of important vitamins produced by bacteria
. storage of fecal material prior to defecation
Vitamin K, Biotin, Pantothenic Acid
what vitamins are produced by bacteria in the large intestine?
-pouch at the very beginning
- ascending, transverse, descending
- last 15cm of digestive tract
Sections of large intestine
produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder
where is bile formed and where is it stored?
P- produces enzymes that break down all three macronutrients
L- produces bile, eliminates toxins
GB- stores and concentrates bile
pancreas, liver, gall bladder
Carbs, LIpids, and proteins
what are the macronutrients?
vitamins, minerals, water
What are the micronutrients?
-produces no harmful products (CO2 is easily eliminated and doesnt cause danger to tissue upon exposure)
what are the first macro to produce energy in the human body?
due to its 1:2:1 carbon, hydrogen, oxygen ratio
what makes carbs the most efficient?
- produce more ATP then carbs but are difficult for our body to break down and produce ketones
What is the second most efficient source?
S- single bond all surrounded by H
U- double bond not surrounded by hydrogens
L- bad cholesterol
Saturated and unsaturated fats
the breakdown produces ammonia and that is very toxic to us
What makes proteins problematic?
A- building up
C- breaking down
synthesis of glucose from fats and proteins
what is gluconeogenesis?
blood glucose levels increase, glycogen stores are replenished
What is the absorptive phase and what happens to blood glucose levels during it?
blood glucose levels decrease, glycogen stores might be utilized to supply organs with energy during sleep
What is the postabsorptive phase?
NEVER! starvation leads to the breakdown of the proteins that make up our muscles which produces ammonia which is toxic and causes metabolism to slow down and can harm DNA
starvation diet, good or bad?
.excrete metabolic waste
.regulate blood pressure
. regulate blood water salt balance
. maintain blood pH
.Reabsorb filter nurtients
Functions of the urinary system
ureters (2, 1 coming from each kidney to bladder)
urinary bladder (1)
urethra ( 1)
components of the urinary system
-longer urethra and is shared between reproductive+ urinary systems (carry urine and sperm)
-shorter urethra making it easier to contract UTI b/c bacteria has less distance to travel to bladder and kidneys than it would for a male
what are the differences between the male and female urinary tracts?
what is the functional unit of the kidney?
proximal convoluted tubule
loop of Henle ( nephron loop)
distal convoluted tubule
parts of a nephron
where blood is filtered and uses blood pressure and osmotic pressure to do it properly
site of tubular reabsorption, nutrients that were filtered out of the blood at glomerulus but could still be used by the body and back to blood
descending limb- allows water to leave nephron
ascending limb- allows salt to leave
Loop of henle
site of tubular secretion, requires ATP, waste products and unwanted substances that are too large to be filtered at glomerus
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa
layers of alimentary canal/digestive tract
innermost layer that produces mucus that protects the lining and also produces digestive enzymes
2nd layer, contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves
3rd layer made of two layers of smooth muscle that move food along GI tract
outer lining that is [art of the peritoneum
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