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148 terms

Polisci Midterm

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The Bill of Rights was designed to protect
Liberty
What are the three core values in American politics?
liberty, equality, and democracy
A government that is formally limited by laws and rules is called
constitutional
Of the nearly two hundred governments in the world, what is the estimate of the number of actual constitutional democracies?
20
T/F The principle of "one person, one vote" summarizes the idea of liberty.
False
Politics can be defined as
conflicts over the character, membership, and policies of any organization to which people belong
In American political culture, economic freedom means
laissez-faire capitalism
Throughout American history, the concept of liberty has been linked to
the idea of limite government
T/F The most important thing for a citizen to possess is political knowledge.
True
California is less majoritarian than other states- doesn't use as many forms of direct democracy to change the constitution.
False
In order to be a good citizen, it is most critical to possess
Knowledge
Direct democracy is best defined as
a system that allows citizens to vote directly for laws and policies
According to the text, what is the goal of politics?
to have a say in a government's leadership, organization, and policies
According to the text, what is the main benefit of a constitutional government?
The government is limited by the rule of law
The willingness to be restrained by the power of social institutions, but not political or legal institutions, is a hallmark of a(n) ______ regime
authoritarian
A representative democracy is a system of government that
gives citizens a regular opportunity to elect top government officials.
Having some share or say in the composition of a government's leadership, how it is organized, or what its policies are going to be is called
power
The right of each citizen to vote is an example of
political equality
Which of the following statements concerning political values in the United States is true?
American values often conflict with each other in practice
The belief that political authority should rest with the people themselves is called
popular sovereignty
Prior to Prop 25 in November of 2010, a 2/3 vote of approval was required when the California State Legislature
increased taxes and passed a budget
The key group in Europe that pushed for limited government was
the bourgeoisie
What is the most important check on majority rule in the United States?
minority rights
T/F The United States has never accepted the principle of popular sovereignty
Flase
T/F The Progressive Movement resulted in very few real reforms for California
False
The Boston Tea Party resulted in all of the following except
the Boston Massacre
The California Constitution ____________ amend compared with the US Constitution.
is easier to
Colonial protesters of the Stamp Act and the Sugar Act rallied around what famous political slogan?
No Taxation without Representation
Under the Articles of Confederation, it was left to the ______ to execute the laws passed by Congress.
states
The framers of the Constitution intended to create a presidency capable of
withstanding excessive popular pressure by making it subject to indirect election through the electoral college
What did the New Jersey Plan propose for Congress?
Representation would be equal for each state.
The Federalists believed that the powers of government could be limited by
creating an internal system of checks and controls within government
Bicameralism is a constitutional principle that means the
division of congress into two chambers
The supremacy clause
announces that the Constitution and all laws made under it are superior to any state laws.
The first written constitution for the United States was called
the Articles of Confederation
What is the term length of a federal judge?
barring impeachment, life
What was the purpose of the Annapolis Convention?
to discuss the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
According to the text, which sector of society did not have interests that were important to colonial politics?
slaves
The Great Compromise led to the
creation of a bicameral Congress
The Antifederalists argued that the powers of government should be limited by
both confining the powers of the federal government to certain narrowly defines areas and adding a bill of rights to the Constitution
The Three-fifths Compromise
determined that three out of every five slaves would be counted for purposes of representation and taxation.
The system of shared powers, divided between a central government and the states, is called
federalism
Shays's Rebellion was significant because it
convinced many observers that the government of the Confederation had become dangerously inefficient and indecisive
The events that led to the Revolutionary War were triggered by which of the following?
The British raised revenue by increasing the tax rate of the colonies
The Virginia Plan of the Constitutional Convention proposed a system of representation in the national legislature that was based upon
the population of each state or the proportion of each state's revenue contribution or both
To amend the Constitution requires a ______ vote by Congress, and approval by ______ of the states
two-thirds; three-fourths
Under the Articles of Confederation, the relationship between the states and the federal government can best be compared to
the United Nations' relationship with member states
Which of the following was designed by the framers to be an office directly elected by the people?
member of the House of Representatives
What is the main purpose behind the privileges and immunities clause of Article IV?
It prevents states from discriminating against nonresidents.
Santa Clarita has a ___________ city manager
strong
Which event was most influential in the rise of a more active national government?
The Great Depression
Which statement best describes American federalism since the 1930s?
Although the federal government has grown significantly more powerful since the 1930s, some power has been returned to states in recent years.
______ describes the strategy of delegating a policy program to a lower level of government.
Devolution
The full faith and credit clause of the Constitution
requires states to normally honor each other's public acts and legal decisions
All of the following are issues local governments in California face EXCEPT
Too much autonomy
When the national government funds a project that is actually implemented by the states, it is an example of
cooperative federalism
A state government's authority to regulate the safety, health, and morals of its citizens is called ______ power.
police
Which of the following statements best describes the discussion of local government found in the Constitution?
Local government has no status in the Constitution
What was the overall importance of the Supreme Court case McCulloch v. Maryland?
The Court interpreted the delegated powers of Congress broadly, creating the potential for increased national powers.
Which of the following powers do state governments not have?
to coin their own money
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) was important because
it established the supremacy of the national government in all matters affecting interstate commerce.
The term marble cake federalism is meant to refer to what development?
intergovernmental cooperation blurring the lines between different layers of government
Which constitutional clause has been central in debates over gay and lesbian marriage?
the full faith and credit clause
Which president was the first to promote New Federalism?
Richard Nixon
The specific powers granted to the national government in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution are called the
expressed powers
Those seeking to restrain the powers of the national government look to what part of the constitution?
the Tenth Amendment
In a federal system a majority of governmental responsibilities are
shared by both state and federal authorities
When both state and national governments possess a certain level of authority, it is called
a cocurrent power
Which of the following is the best example of a unitary system of government?
The federal government sets education policies for all schools
If the federal government compels state governments to obey costly regulations but does not reimburse those costs, it is called a(n)
unfunded mandate
Which of the following was not a function of government most commonly performed by state governments during the era of dual federalism?
patents and copyrights
According to the text, when was the era of dual federalism?
from the ratification of the Constitution until the New Deal
What is the purpose of the Tenth Amendment?
to limit the powers of the central government by establishing reserved powers for states and individuals
Which rights do not fall under constitutional arguments in favor of the right to privacy?
right to use pornography
In Lawrence v. Texas (2003), the Supreme Court ruled that
laws criminalizing gay sexual behavior are a violation of the right to privacy.
The constitutional basis for the nationalization of the Bill of Rights is
the Fourteenth Amendment
When the government blocks the publication of material it does not want released, this is known as
prior restraint
The ______ rule forbids the introduction in trial of any piece of evidence obtained illegally
exclusionary
Why did the Equal Rights Amendment fail to pass?
It was not ratified by the necessary thirty-eight states.
The Supreme Court's ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson
established the separate but equal rule
The right to vote was strengthened after 1964 when Congress
made literacy tests illegal and mandated bilingual ballots or other assistance for non-English speaking Americans
The procedural liberties found in the Bill of Rights
define how the government is supposed to act
The wall of separation between church and state is best found in what clause of the Constitution?
the establishment clause
What is a grand jury?
a jury that determines whether there is enough evidence to justify a trial
The Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth amendments are largely about
protections for those accused of committing a crime
The first and most famous test for determining when the government could intervene to suppress political speech was called the
clear and present danger test
The rights of disabled individuals to both access public businesses and not be discriminated against in employment are guaranteed by
the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
The ______ of the First Amendment protects an individual's right to believe and practice whatever religion she or he chooses
free exercise
The right against ______ prevents persons from being tried twice for the same crime.
double jeopardy
During the Founding era, who were the strongest supporters of adding a bill of rights to the Constitution?
Antifederalists
Which of the following best summarizes the Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education?
Racially segregated schools can never be equal
When did civil rights become part of the U.S. Constitution?
Civil rights were incorporated with the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment
The substantive liberties found in the Bill of Rights
put limits on what government shall and shall not have the power to do
The Eighth Amendment prohibits
cruel and unusual punishment
The current prohibition on the states' ability to criminalize abortion is based on
the right to privacy
The term eminent domain describes
the power of the government to take private property for public use.
Which of the following types of speech receives the greatest level of First Amendment protection?
political speech that stops short of inciting violence
Which of the following best describes the distinction between civil liberties and civil rights?
Unlike civil liberties, civil rights place positive obligations on the government to take action.
One who supports abortion rights and opposes state involvement with religious institutions would be best described as a(n)
liberal
The small group selected by pollsters to represent the entire population is called the
sample
The complex set of beliefs and values that, as a whole, form a general philosophy about the government is called
political ideology
Which of the following statements about agencies of socialization is incorrect?
The conditions under which individuals and groups are recruited into and involved in political life have no impact on political values and orientations
Which of the following statements best describes perceptions of racism among blacks and whites?
Blacks are more likely than whites to believe that racism is very common in the United States today.
Opposition to legalized abortion is a position most likely supported by ______ while support for legalized abortion is a position most likely supported by ______.
conservatives; liberals
When pollsters are given a list of people to be surveyed, this list is called the
sampling frame
T/F Levels of education have not been shown to affect one's political opinions
False
A political ideology is best defined as
a cohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about the government
A frequent cause of measurement error in polls is due to
poorly worded questions.
Liberalism and conservatism are good examples of
political ideologies.
T/F Families, social groups, and schools are important institutions where people are politically socialized.
True
The practice of push polling involves
the procedure of asking loaded questions in order to subtly shape the respondent's opinion.
The term gender gap refers to
differences in political opinions between men and women.
Conservatives are more likely than liberals to support
school prayer
Which statement about public opinion polls is not true?
In modern election campaigns, politicians have almost never used public opinion polls.
The process by which underlying political values are formed is known as
political socialization
Calling randomly selected phone numbers is the main method pollsters use to gather a random sample.
True
Which of the following statements best summarizes the findings of studies on the relationship between public opinion and public policy in the United States?
The government's actions are usually in line with the public's preferences but some areas of disagreement always arise.
A liberal would most likely support
an expansion in governmental social services.
In public opinion surveys, a sample of the total population
must be representative in that the views of those in the sample must accurately and proportionately reflect the views of the whole population.
Which of the following terms describe America's fundamental political values?
liberty, equality, and democracy
An important reason for why public policy and public opinion may not coincide in the United States is that
the American system of government includes arrangements, such as an appointed judiciary, which may produce policy decisions that run contrary to prevailing popular sentiment.
What is the key difference between those who have gone to college and those who have not?
There is a higher level of political participation among those with a college education.
T/F Under the U.S. political system, public policy will always coincide with the state of public opinion.
False
T/F Since the 1980s, the ownership of news media has expanded and fallen into many different hands.
False
The media can set the political agenda in the United States by
identifying an issue as a problem that must be solved
Websites with personal commentary on news events, links to other websites, and short posts of views are called
blogs
The media's power to influence the interpretation of events and issues is called
framing
Which governmental regulation provides candidates for the same political office equal opportunities to communicate their messages?
equal time rule
The power of the media to draw public attention to particular issues and problems is called
agenda setting
Approximately what percentage of daily newspapers is owned by large media conglomerates?
75 percent
f a television station sold commercial time to a Republican candidate for governor, but refused to sell time to the Democratic candidate for governor, this station would be violating the
equal time rule
T/F Because of their dependence on government sources, the news media are unable to set the agenda of debate.
False
What is a major risk posed by the increasing concentration of media ownership?
Less popular viewpoints and the politicians who espouse them will have difficulty finding a public forum in which to disseminate their ideas.
Which of the following news sources typically provides the least depth while covering topics?
TV
T/F Newspapers are among the most heavily regulated media in the United States.
False
Most local newspapers get their national news from
Wire Services
The fairness doctrine required that
broadcasters who air controversial issues provide time for opposing viewpoints.
A short, attention-grabbing phrase that summarizes a position is called a
sound bite.
The United States has approximately ______ television stations and ______ daily newspapers.
2,000; 1,400
What trend has helped hasten the homogenization of national news in the past decade?
the corporate consolidation of news media into a small number of conglomerates
The ______ regulates broadcast media.
Federal Communications Commission
Which of the following is regulated by the federal government?
TV
Which group has had great popularity on radio talk shows?
Conservatives
Which media source is most critical in setting news agendas?
Newspapers
Which of the following news sources reaches the most Americans?
TV
According to the text, which of the following is the most important, but not the most popular, source of news?
Newspapers
The term nationalization of news refers to
the fact that more Americans throughout the country are receiving the same news stories.
When media coverage affects the way the public evaluates a political leader in future actions, this effect is called
Priming