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The Bill of Rights was designed to protect


What are the three core values in American politics?

liberty, equality, and democracy

A government that is formally limited by laws and rules is called


Of the nearly two hundred governments in the world, what is the estimate of the number of actual constitutional democracies?


T/F The principle of "one person, one vote" summarizes the idea of liberty.


Politics can be defined as

conflicts over the character, membership, and policies of any organization to which people belong

In American political culture, economic freedom means

laissez-faire capitalism

Throughout American history, the concept of liberty has been linked to

the idea of limite government

T/F The most important thing for a citizen to possess is political knowledge.


California is less majoritarian than other states- doesn't use as many forms of direct democracy to change the constitution.


In order to be a good citizen, it is most critical to possess


Direct democracy is best defined as

a system that allows citizens to vote directly for laws and policies

According to the text, what is the goal of politics?

to have a say in a government's leadership, organization, and policies

According to the text, what is the main benefit of a constitutional government?

The government is limited by the rule of law

The willingness to be restrained by the power of social institutions, but not political or legal institutions, is a hallmark of a(n) ______ regime


A representative democracy is a system of government that

gives citizens a regular opportunity to elect top government officials.

Having some share or say in the composition of a government's leadership, how it is organized, or what its policies are going to be is called


The right of each citizen to vote is an example of

political equality

Which of the following statements concerning political values in the United States is true?

American values often conflict with each other in practice

The belief that political authority should rest with the people themselves is called

popular sovereignty

Prior to Prop 25 in November of 2010, a 2/3 vote of approval was required when the California State Legislature

increased taxes and passed a budget

The key group in Europe that pushed for limited government was

the bourgeoisie

What is the most important check on majority rule in the United States?

minority rights

T/F The United States has never accepted the principle of popular sovereignty


T/F The Progressive Movement resulted in very few real reforms for California


The Boston Tea Party resulted in all of the following except

the Boston Massacre

The California Constitution ____________ amend compared with the US Constitution.

is easier to

Colonial protesters of the Stamp Act and the Sugar Act rallied around what famous political slogan?

No Taxation without Representation

Under the Articles of Confederation, it was left to the ______ to execute the laws passed by Congress.


The framers of the Constitution intended to create a presidency capable of

withstanding excessive popular pressure by making it subject to indirect election through the electoral college

What did the New Jersey Plan propose for Congress?

Representation would be equal for each state.

The Federalists believed that the powers of government could be limited by

creating an internal system of checks and controls within government

Bicameralism is a constitutional principle that means the

division of congress into two chambers

The supremacy clause

announces that the Constitution and all laws made under it are superior to any state laws.

The first written constitution for the United States was called

the Articles of Confederation

What is the term length of a federal judge?

barring impeachment, life

What was the purpose of the Annapolis Convention?

to discuss the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation

According to the text, which sector of society did not have interests that were important to colonial politics?


The Great Compromise led to the

creation of a bicameral Congress

The Antifederalists argued that the powers of government should be limited by

both confining the powers of the federal government to certain narrowly defines areas and adding a bill of rights to the Constitution

The Three-fifths Compromise

determined that three out of every five slaves would be counted for purposes of representation and taxation.

The system of shared powers, divided between a central government and the states, is called


Shays's Rebellion was significant because it

convinced many observers that the government of the Confederation had become dangerously inefficient and indecisive

The events that led to the Revolutionary War were triggered by which of the following?

The British raised revenue by increasing the tax rate of the colonies

The Virginia Plan of the Constitutional Convention proposed a system of representation in the national legislature that was based upon

the population of each state or the proportion of each state's revenue contribution or both

To amend the Constitution requires a ______ vote by Congress, and approval by ______ of the states

two-thirds; three-fourths

Under the Articles of Confederation, the relationship between the states and the federal government can best be compared to

the United Nations' relationship with member states

Which of the following was designed by the framers to be an office directly elected by the people?

member of the House of Representatives

What is the main purpose behind the privileges and immunities clause of Article IV?

It prevents states from discriminating against nonresidents.

Santa Clarita has a ___________ city manager


Which event was most influential in the rise of a more active national government?

The Great Depression

Which statement best describes American federalism since the 1930s?

Although the federal government has grown significantly more powerful since the 1930s, some power has been returned to states in recent years.

______ describes the strategy of delegating a policy program to a lower level of government.


The full faith and credit clause of the Constitution

requires states to normally honor each other's public acts and legal decisions

All of the following are issues local governments in California face EXCEPT

Too much autonomy

When the national government funds a project that is actually implemented by the states, it is an example of

cooperative federalism

A state government's authority to regulate the safety, health, and morals of its citizens is called ______ power.


Which of the following statements best describes the discussion of local government found in the Constitution?

Local government has no status in the Constitution

What was the overall importance of the Supreme Court case McCulloch v. Maryland?

The Court interpreted the delegated powers of Congress broadly, creating the potential for increased national powers.

Which of the following powers do state governments not have?

to coin their own money

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) was important because

it established the supremacy of the national government in all matters affecting interstate commerce.

The term marble cake federalism is meant to refer to what development?

intergovernmental cooperation blurring the lines between different layers of government

Which constitutional clause has been central in debates over gay and lesbian marriage?

the full faith and credit clause

Which president was the first to promote New Federalism?

Richard Nixon

The specific powers granted to the national government in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution are called the

expressed powers

Those seeking to restrain the powers of the national government look to what part of the constitution?

the Tenth Amendment

In a federal system a majority of governmental responsibilities are

shared by both state and federal authorities

When both state and national governments possess a certain level of authority, it is called

a cocurrent power

Which of the following is the best example of a unitary system of government?

The federal government sets education policies for all schools

If the federal government compels state governments to obey costly regulations but does not reimburse those costs, it is called a(n)

unfunded mandate

Which of the following was not a function of government most commonly performed by state governments during the era of dual federalism?

patents and copyrights

According to the text, when was the era of dual federalism?

from the ratification of the Constitution until the New Deal

What is the purpose of the Tenth Amendment?

to limit the powers of the central government by establishing reserved powers for states and individuals

Which rights do not fall under constitutional arguments in favor of the right to privacy?

right to use pornography

In Lawrence v. Texas (2003), the Supreme Court ruled that

laws criminalizing gay sexual behavior are a violation of the right to privacy.

The constitutional basis for the nationalization of the Bill of Rights is

the Fourteenth Amendment

When the government blocks the publication of material it does not want released, this is known as

prior restraint

The ______ rule forbids the introduction in trial of any piece of evidence obtained illegally


Why did the Equal Rights Amendment fail to pass?

It was not ratified by the necessary thirty-eight states.

The Supreme Court's ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson

established the separate but equal rule

The right to vote was strengthened after 1964 when Congress

made literacy tests illegal and mandated bilingual ballots or other assistance for non-English speaking Americans

The procedural liberties found in the Bill of Rights

define how the government is supposed to act

The wall of separation between church and state is best found in what clause of the Constitution?

the establishment clause

What is a grand jury?

a jury that determines whether there is enough evidence to justify a trial

The Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth amendments are largely about

protections for those accused of committing a crime

The first and most famous test for determining when the government could intervene to suppress political speech was called the

clear and present danger test

The rights of disabled individuals to both access public businesses and not be discriminated against in employment are guaranteed by

the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

The ______ of the First Amendment protects an individual's right to believe and practice whatever religion she or he chooses

free exercise

The right against ______ prevents persons from being tried twice for the same crime.

double jeopardy

During the Founding era, who were the strongest supporters of adding a bill of rights to the Constitution?


Which of the following best summarizes the Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education?

Racially segregated schools can never be equal

When did civil rights become part of the U.S. Constitution?

Civil rights were incorporated with the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment

The substantive liberties found in the Bill of Rights

put limits on what government shall and shall not have the power to do

The Eighth Amendment prohibits

cruel and unusual punishment

The current prohibition on the states' ability to criminalize abortion is based on

the right to privacy

The term eminent domain describes

the power of the government to take private property for public use.

Which of the following types of speech receives the greatest level of First Amendment protection?

political speech that stops short of inciting violence

Which of the following best describes the distinction between civil liberties and civil rights?

Unlike civil liberties, civil rights place positive obligations on the government to take action.

One who supports abortion rights and opposes state involvement with religious institutions would be best described as a(n)


The small group selected by pollsters to represent the entire population is called the


The complex set of beliefs and values that, as a whole, form a general philosophy about the government is called

political ideology

Which of the following statements about agencies of socialization is incorrect?

The conditions under which individuals and groups are recruited into and involved in political life have no impact on political values and orientations

Which of the following statements best describes perceptions of racism among blacks and whites?

Blacks are more likely than whites to believe that racism is very common in the United States today.

Opposition to legalized abortion is a position most likely supported by ______ while support for legalized abortion is a position most likely supported by ______.

conservatives; liberals

When pollsters are given a list of people to be surveyed, this list is called the

sampling frame

T/F Levels of education have not been shown to affect one's political opinions


A political ideology is best defined as

a cohesive set of beliefs that form a general philosophy about the government

A frequent cause of measurement error in polls is due to

poorly worded questions.

Liberalism and conservatism are good examples of

political ideologies.

T/F Families, social groups, and schools are important institutions where people are politically socialized.


The practice of push polling involves

the procedure of asking loaded questions in order to subtly shape the respondent's opinion.

The term gender gap refers to

differences in political opinions between men and women.

Conservatives are more likely than liberals to support

school prayer

Which statement about public opinion polls is not true?

In modern election campaigns, politicians have almost never used public opinion polls.

The process by which underlying political values are formed is known as

political socialization

Calling randomly selected phone numbers is the main method pollsters use to gather a random sample.


Which of the following statements best summarizes the findings of studies on the relationship between public opinion and public policy in the United States?

The government's actions are usually in line with the public's preferences but some areas of disagreement always arise.

A liberal would most likely support

an expansion in governmental social services.

In public opinion surveys, a sample of the total population

must be representative in that the views of those in the sample must accurately and proportionately reflect the views of the whole population.

Which of the following terms describe America's fundamental political values?

liberty, equality, and democracy

An important reason for why public policy and public opinion may not coincide in the United States is that

the American system of government includes arrangements, such as an appointed judiciary, which may produce policy decisions that run contrary to prevailing popular sentiment.

What is the key difference between those who have gone to college and those who have not?

There is a higher level of political participation among those with a college education.

T/F Under the U.S. political system, public policy will always coincide with the state of public opinion.


T/F Since the 1980s, the ownership of news media has expanded and fallen into many different hands.


The media can set the political agenda in the United States by

identifying an issue as a problem that must be solved

Websites with personal commentary on news events, links to other websites, and short posts of views are called


The media's power to influence the interpretation of events and issues is called


Which governmental regulation provides candidates for the same political office equal opportunities to communicate their messages?

equal time rule

The power of the media to draw public attention to particular issues and problems is called

agenda setting

Approximately what percentage of daily newspapers is owned by large media conglomerates?

75 percent

f a television station sold commercial time to a Republican candidate for governor, but refused to sell time to the Democratic candidate for governor, this station would be violating the

equal time rule

T/F Because of their dependence on government sources, the news media are unable to set the agenda of debate.


What is a major risk posed by the increasing concentration of media ownership?

Less popular viewpoints and the politicians who espouse them will have difficulty finding a public forum in which to disseminate their ideas.

Which of the following news sources typically provides the least depth while covering topics?


T/F Newspapers are among the most heavily regulated media in the United States.


Most local newspapers get their national news from

Wire Services

The fairness doctrine required that

broadcasters who air controversial issues provide time for opposing viewpoints.

A short, attention-grabbing phrase that summarizes a position is called a

sound bite.

The United States has approximately ______ television stations and ______ daily newspapers.

2,000; 1,400

What trend has helped hasten the homogenization of national news in the past decade?

the corporate consolidation of news media into a small number of conglomerates

The ______ regulates broadcast media.

Federal Communications Commission

Which of the following is regulated by the federal government?


Which group has had great popularity on radio talk shows?


Which media source is most critical in setting news agendas?


Which of the following news sources reaches the most Americans?


According to the text, which of the following is the most important, but not the most popular, source of news?


The term nationalization of news refers to

the fact that more Americans throughout the country are receiving the same news stories.

When media coverage affects the way the public evaluates a political leader in future actions, this effect is called


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