48 terms

Human Development

germinal stage
first two weeks of life, when one is a zygote. one goes through conception to implantation and formation of placenta
embryonic stage
2 weeks- 2 months old. stage of development of embryo. formation of vital organs and systems
fetal stage
2 months- birth. bodily growth continues, movement capability begins, and brain cells multiply
age of viability
age in which a fetus can (technically) live independently of the mother. around the 5th month
substances that can produce birth defects ex: alcohol can result in fetal alcohol syndrome
infant reflex - sucking
put something in the baby's mouth and they will suck on it (more likely if they are hungry)
infant reflex - gripping
put something in the baby's hand and they will grab
infant reflex - rooting
(first 6 months) in order to get child to eat, you stroke the cheek and they open their mouth
infant reflex - startle
child opens arms wide when startled
infant reflex - swimming
child will model swimming like motions (salamander-like) likely evolutionary survival trait
infant reflex - gallant
when child is on stomach and one strokes it's back, the child will arch back
infant reflex - fencing
baby lies on back with one arm out, head facing in the outstretched arm's direction, and other arm bent
infant reflex - babinsky
when one strokes a baby's foot and the toes curl outward. if this continues on past 6 months, the child most likely has a neurological problem
secure attachment
baby is not totally freaked out by strangers but happy at return of the mother. these babies were most likely to succeed and have healthy relationships with others
anxious ambivolent attachment
when mother leaves the child screams and the baby doesn't interact with anyone. when mother returns, the baby is annoyed. babies were most likely to have bad relationships, fight easily and be bad in school
avoidant attachment
when mother leaves, baby doesn't care and doesn't want to be loved by anyone. babies were most likely to be reclusive, and antisocial
harry harlow's monkey research
found that bond between mother and child is about the comfort and nurturing from the mother. disproved Freud's theory that it was about mother providing food
authortarian parenting style
dictator-like over children "I am the ruler and I demand respect" children grew up to have a suppressed ego and dead-end job
permissive parenting style
want to be best friend to child and don't want to upset child too much. don't set rules. children grew up to be rule breakers and not able to follow directions
authoritative parenting style
parents set rules and lines but child has a say in their life. children grew up to be successful and initiative
psychosocial crises
determining balance between opposing polarities in personality
erik erikson - stage 1
first year of life. (trust vs mistrust) if one can trust, then they will be trusting their whole lives and vise versa
erik erikson - stage 2
2 years old (autonomy vs shame) can i do things by myself or am i relying on others? if relying on others, child feels shame for rest of life
erik erikson - stage 3
ages 3-6 (initiative vs guilt) do i have control over my own life? if i have control, am i being a good/bad person? can i make choices?
erik erikson - stage 4
ages 6-puberty (industry vs inveriority) am i good at certain things? can i take pride in my accomplishments? if they don't feel so, they end up feeling inferior
erik erikson - stage 5
adolescence (identity vs conclusion) who am i? how do i belong in this world?
erik erikson - stage 6
early adulthood (intimacy vs isolation) do i have friends, a significant other, or some social network?
erik erikson - stage 7
middle adulthood (generativity vs stagnation) am i productive member of society? am i producing for myself and my family?
erik erikson - stage 8
late adulthood (integrity vs dispair) have a lived a good life?
integrating new info into existing concept ex: a robing is a bird because it has wings
change of a concept with new information
(birth - 3 years old) learning senses, coordination and localizing pain develop
lack of object permenance
out of sight, out of mind for babies
(3 - 8 years old) they focus on one part of something at a time
children see something only from their point of view ex: "the sky is blue because it's my favorite color"
child attributes life to all things that can move ex: car is alive when it moves and nonliving when it stops. (they don't understand death. only living and nonliving)
preconventional moral reasoning
stage one (avoid punishment) stage two (gain rewards)
conventional moral reasoning
want acceptance by community. stage three (good girl/boy mentality) stage four (being in line with communal norms and following law)
post conventional moral reasoning
stage 5 (social contract) stage 6 (universal truths ex: right to life exceedes any business)
primary sex characteristics
developed sex characteristics that relate DIRECTLY to reproduction ex: sperm in males
secondary sex characteristics
developed sex characteristics that don't directly relate to reproduction ex: change in male voice, pubic hair, breast growth
early vs late. if girls are early, they are ostracized because boys aren't developed to be attracted yet. if boys develop late they're looked down upon
neural changes during puberty
increase of myelinization, synaptic pruning, and changes in prefontal cortex
(commitment, no challenge) one commits early to a role (usually prescribed by parents) they usually end up unhappy later in life
(no commitment, challenge) constantly unsure of who they are
identity diffusion
(no commitment, no challenge) usually marked by apathy
identity acchievement
(challenge AND commitment) succesfully obtian sense of self
Kuebler - Ross's 5 stages of death
denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance