66 terms

Greece Study Guide

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Gov't with power in a small powerful elite
(business class)
Oligarchy
Art of skillful speaking
Rhetoric
Massive formation of heavily armed foot soldiers
Phalanx
Law-making body
Legislature
Rule by landowning elite
Aristocracy
"high city" with great marble temples to gods on a hilltop
Acropolis
Government by the people
Democracy
Avoid desires and disappointments by calmly accepting what life brings
Stoicism
Blend together
Assimilate
People who gained power through force
Tyrant
Forcing a person to live outside the city for up to 10 years
Ostracism
Watercolor paintings done on wet plaster
Tell us much of what we know about Minoans
Fresco
Lowe areas of Greek city states
Polis
Formal agreement between 2 or more nations/powers to cooperate and come to one anothers defence
Alliance
Where the rulers lived
Knossos
Confidence in the power of the human mind,
Greek thinkers,"lover of wisdom"
used observation and reason to figure out WHY things happen (not whim of the gods), explored ethics and morality, used rhetoric, art of skillful speaking, to advance careers
Philosopher
Wrote the Iliad and Odyssey
Homer
Athenian philosopher
Know of him from his student Plato
He wrote no books but used "Socratic Method"
considered a threat of accepted traditions by many
70 years old, went to trial for corrupting the city's youth and failing to respect the gods
1. sentenced to death
Socrates
1. go to the marketplace and ask citizens about beliefs
2. pose a series of questions and challenged them
3. try to get his students to seek truth and self-knowledge
Socratic Method
"Father of History"
Herodotus
Plato's student
analyzed types of governments (favored rule by a single
strong and virtuous leader)
promoted reason
"golden mean:" good conduct (moderate course of
actions between extremes)
set up Lyceum (school)=studies were of all branches of
knowledge
Aristotle
Argued that earth rotated on its axis and orbited around the sun
Theory was called heliocentric
Aristarchus
Spread Greek culture and founded many cities
Alexander the Great
Led the Persians against the Athenians at salamis
Darius's son
Xerxes
Led the Spartans against the Persians at Thermopylae
Leonidas
Established a direct democracy in Athens and promoted the golden age
Pericles
Sent the Persian fleet to fight at marathon
Darius
Made the formula to calculate sides in a right triangle
(a squared + b squared = c squared)
Pythagoras
Applied principals of physics to make many inventions
Archimedes
Proved the the Trojan War was not a legend (in 1870)
Heinrich Schliemann
Wrote the play Antigone
Sophocles
Studied causes of illnesses and looked for cures
Hippocrates
Showed the earth was round and accurately calculated its circumference
Eratosthenes
With the execution of his teacher Socrates, he became
distrustful of democracy
-set up the Academy and taught about the importance of reason
-Wrote The Republic
he believed people were divided into 3 groups
thought men were above women
Plato
1. class workers provided necessities
2. soldiers defended
3. philosophers should rule
3 groups that Plato believed people were divided into
Said the state should regulate all aspects of people's lives to provide for their best interests
Plato wrote- The Republic
Wrote "The Elements" a textbook that became basis for modern geometry
Euclid
A writer who stressed the importance of writing about the past without bias.
Thucydides
Urged the Athenians to build warships
Themistocles
Minoan civilization owed its success mainly to what?
Trade
Archaeologists believe that the end of the Minoan civilization could have been caused by what?
1. volcano, earthquake?
2. invaders definitely played a role: Mycenaeans
Although regarded as a romantic legend, what was the true cause of the Trojan War?
1. economic rivalry between Mycenae and Troy
(rich trading city in present day Turkey)
2. Troy controlled straits (narrow water passages)
that connected the Mediterranean and Black Sea
What causes the end of the Trojan War?
When the greeks burn Troy down
Illiad
Tells of Trojan War: about Achilles
Odyssey
Tells about the struggles of a Greek hero,
Odysseus, and his return home to his wife
Penelope after the fall of Troy
What was on the Acropolis?
Marble Temples
To bring an end to the turmoil in Athens, what did Solon outlaw?
Outlawed debt slavery
List the changes in Greek warfare
Iron weapons
Ordinary citizens in the military
Shared training created a sense of unity
Phalanx was the fighting formation
Describe the "legislature" of Athens
Law making body all male citizens over 30 were in it, supervised day to day work of the government
Started by Cleisthenes
What were the "forces of unity?"
Unifying forces among all city-states: common culture, same language, same ancient heroes, same gods, participated in common festivals
Conflict between Athens and Sparta resulted in which war?
Peloponnesian War
Why did Persia go to war against Athens in 490 BC?
Punishment for helping Ionia
Why was the Delian League formed?
To cooperate and defend each other from outsiders
Describe the Persian Wars
Themistocles used underwater battering rams to defeat the Persians at the battle Of salamis, Spartans defended against the coast long enough to allow Athenians to escape before their city was burned at the battle of Thermopylae, Darius: sent the Persian fleet to fight at marathon, Themistocles: urged the Athenians to build warships, Leonidas: led the Spartans against the Persians at Thermopylae, Xerxes: led the Persians at salamis
In his famous Funeral Oration, what did Pericles stress?
Stressed the rights and duties of citizenship
What were the results of the Peloponnesian War?
Athenian domination ended but remained the cultural center, democracy suffered, Sparta refused to destroy Athens
Describe Greek culture
Philosophers wanted to know why things happened, sculpture showed people in perfect shape, comedies mocked people and society
Describe the geography of Greece.
Greece is part of the Balkan Peninsula in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, mountains divide the peninsula into isolated valleys, Greeks built many small city-states
that were cut off from each other because of mountains or water, seas linked Greece to the rest of the world
What was The Trojan Woman about?
The suffering caused by warfare, particularly to women and children
What did Socrates use the Socratic method of questioning for?
To help others seek truth and self knowledge
Why did Plato reject democracy?
Becuase democracy led to the death of Socrates
Where was the center of the Hellenistic world?
Alexandria Egypt
Describe how the Hellenistic artists and architects designed their work?
Glorified rules as godlike monarchs
Which cultures contributed to the new Hellenistic culture?
Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian
What all was developed during the Hellenistic age?
Pythagorean theorom, Hippocratic oath, Euclidean geometry
What happened to Alexander's empire after his death?
The three sections fought for 300 years