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Period 2: 1607-1754

Key Concepts:

Terms in this set (22)

SPANISH, FRENCH, DUTCH AND BRITISH COLONIZERS

Period 1607-1754:
Key Concept 2.1: Europeans developed a variety of colonization and migration patterns, influenced by different imperial goals, cultures, and the varied North American environments where they settled, and they competed with each other and American Indians for resources.

I. Spanish, French, Dutch, and British colonizers had different economic and imperial goals involving land and labor that
shaped the social and political development of their colonies as well as their relationships with native populations.
A. Spanish efforts to extract wealth from the land led them to develop institutions based on subjugating native populations, converting
them to Christianity, and incorporating them, along with enslaved and free Africans, into the Spanish colonial society.
B. French and Dutch colonial efforts involved relatively few Europeans and relied on trade alliances and intermarriage with American
Indians to build economic and diplomatic relationships and acquire furs and other products for export to Europe.
C. English colonization efforts attracted a comparatively large number of male and female British migrants, as well as other European
migrants, all of whom sought social mobility, economic prosperity, religious freedom, and improved living conditions. These colonists
focused on agriculture and settled on land taken from Native Americans, from whom they lived separately.

(source: 2015 Revised College Board Content Outline for A.P. U.S. History)
CHESAPEAKE AND NORTH CAROLINA COLONIES

Period 2,1607-1754
Key Concept 2.1: Europeans developed a variety of colonization and migration patterns, influenced by different imperial goals, cultures, and the varied North American environments where they settled, and they competed with each other and American Indians for resources.
II. In the 17th century, early British colonies developed along the Atlantic coast, with regional differences that reflected various environmental, economic, cultural, and demographic factors.

A. The Chesapeake and North Carolina colonies grew prosperous exporting tobacco — a labor-intensive product initially cultivated by white, mostly male indentured servants and later by enslaved Africans.

II. Like other European empires in the Americas that participated in the Atlantic slave trade, the English colonies developed a system of slavery that reflected the specific economic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of those colonies.
A. All the British colonies participated to varying degrees in the Atlantic slave trade due to the abundance of land and
a growing European demand for colonial goods, as well as a shortage of indentured servants. Small New
England farms used relatively few enslaved laborers, all port cities held significant minorities of enslaved people, and the emerging plantation systems of the Chesapeake and the southernmost Atlantic coast had large numbers of enslaved workers, while the great majority of enslaved Africans were sent to the West Indies.

(source: 2015 Revised College Board Content Outline for A.P. U.S. History)
INDENTURED SERVANTS

Period 2,1607-1754
Key Concept 2.1: Europeans developed a variety of colonization and migration patterns, influenced by different imperial goals, cultures, and the varied North American environments where they settled, and they competed with each other and American Indians for resources.
II. In the 17th century, early British colonies developed along the Atlantic coast, with regional differences that reflected various environmental, economic, cultural, and demographic factors.

A. The Chesapeake and North Carolina colonies grew prosperous exporting tobacco — a labor-intensive product initially cultivated by white, mostly male indentured servantss* and later by enslaved Africans.

Key Concept 2.2: The British colonies participated in political, social, cultural, and economic exchanges with Great Britain that encouraged both stronger bonds with Britain and resistance to Britain's control.

II. Like other European empires in the Americas that participated in the Atlantic slave trade, the English colonies developed a system of slavery that reflected the specific economic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of those colonies.

A) All the British colonies participated to varying degrees in the Atlantic slave trade due to the abundance of land and a growing European demand for colonial goods, as well as a shortage of indentured servants. Small New England farms used relatively few enslaved laborers, all port cities held significant minorities of enslaved people, and the emerging plantation systems of the Chesapeake and the southernmost Atlantic coast had large numbers
of enslaved workers, while the great majority of enslaved Africans were sent to the West Indies.

(source: 2015 Revised College Board Content Outline for A.P. U.S. History)
PLANTATION SYSTEM

Period 2, 1607-1754
Key Concept 2.1: Europeans developed a variety of colonization and migration patterns, influenced by different imperial goals, cultures, and the varied North American environments where they settled, and they competed with each other and American Indians for resources.
II. In the 17th century, early British colonies developed along the Atlantic coast, with regional differences that reflected various environmental, economic, cultural, and demographic factors.
D. The colonies of the southernmost Atlantic coast and the British West Indies used long growing seasons to develop plantation economies based on exporting staple crops. They depended on the labor of enslaved Africans, who often constituted the majority of the population in these areas and developed their own forms of cultural and religious autonomy

Key Concept 2.2: The British colonies participated in political, social, cultural, and economic exchanges with Great Britain that encouraged both stronger bonds with Britain and resistance to Britain's control.
II. Like other European empires in the Americas that participated in the Atlantic slave trade, the English colonies developed a system of slavery that reflected the specific economic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of those colonies.

A) All the British colonies participated to varying degrees in the Atlantic slave trade due to the abundance of land and a growing European demand for colonial goods, as well as a shortage of indentured servants. Small New England farms used relatively few enslaved laborers, all port cities held significant minorities of enslaved people, and the emerging plantation systems of the Chesapeake and the southernmost Atlantic coast had large numbers of enslaved workers, while the great majority of enslaved Africans were sent to the West Indies.


(source: 2015 Revised College Board Content Outline for A.P. U.S. History)
BRITISH WEST INDIES
Period 2, 1607-1754:

Key Concept 2.1: Europeans developed a variety of colonization and migration patterns, influenced by different imperial goals, cultures, and the varied North American environments where they settled, and they competed with each other and American Indians for resources.

II. In the 17th century, early British colonies developed along the Atlantic coast, with regional differences that reflected various environmental, economic, cultural, and demographic factors.
D. The colonies of the southernmost Atlantic coast and the British West Indies used long growing seasons to develop plantation economies based on exporting staple crops. They depended on the labor of enslaved Africans, who often constituted the majority of the population in these areas and developed their own forms of cultural and religious autonomy.

Key Concept 2.2: The British colonies participated in political, social, cultural, and economic exchanges with Great Britain that encouraged both stronger bonds with Britain and resistance to Britain's control.
II. Like other European empires in the Americas that participated in the Atlantic slave trade, the English colonies developed a system of slavery that reflected the specific economic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of those colonies.

A) All the British colonies participated to varying degrees in the Atlantic slave trade due to the abundance of land and a growing European demand for colonial goods, as well as a shortage of indentured servants. Small New England farms used relatively few enslaved laborers, all port cities held significant minorities of enslaved people, and the emerging plantation systems of the Chesapeake and the southernmost Atlantic coast had large numbers of enslaved workers, while the great majority of enslaved Africans were sent to the West Indies.

(source: 2015 Revised College Board Content Outline for A.P. U.S. History)
AMERICAN INDIANS

Period 2:1607-1754
Key Concept 2.1: Europeans developed a variety of colonization and migration patterns, influenced by different imperial goals, cultures, and the North American environments where they settled, and they competed with each other and American Indians for resources.

I. Spanish, French, Dutch, and British colonizers had different economic and imperial goals involving land and labor that shaped the social and political development of their colonies as well as their relationships with native populations.

B. French and Dutch colonial efforts involved relatively few Europeans and relied on trade alliances and intermarriage with AMERICAN INDIANS to build economic and diplomatic relationships and acquire furs and other products for export to Europe.

III. Competition over resources between European rivals and AMERICAN INDIANS encouraged industry and trade and led to conflict in the Americas.
A. An Atlantic economy developed in which goods, as well as enslaved Africans and AMERICAN INDIANS, were
exchanged between Europe, Africa, and the Americas through extensive trade networks. European colonial
economies focused on acquiring, producing, and exporting commodities that were valued in Europe and gaining new sources of labor.

B. Continuing trade with Europeans increased the flow of goods in and out of AMERICAN INDIAN communities,
stimulating cultural and economic changes and spreading epidemic diseases that caused radical demographic shifts.
C. Interactions between European rivals and AMERICAN INDIAN populations fostered both accommodation and conflict. French, Dutch, British, and Spanish colonies allied with and armed AMERICAN INDIAN groups, who
frequently sought alliances with Europeans against other INDIAN groups.
E. British conflicts with AMERICAN INDIANS over land, resources, and political boundaries led to military confrontations, such as Metacom's War (King Philip's War) in New England.
F. AMERICAN INDIAN resistance to Spanish colonizing efforts in North America, particularly after the Pueblo
Revolt, led to Spanish accommodation of some aspects of American Indian culture in the Southwest.

(source: 2015 Revised College Board Content Outline for A.P. U.S. History)
SELF-GOVERNMENT

Period 2:1607-1754
Key Concept 2.1: Europeans developed a variety of colonization and migration patterns, influenced by different imperial goals, cultures, and the varied North American environments where they settled, and they competed with each other and American Indians for resources.
II. In the 17th century, early British colonies developed along the Atlantic coast, with regional differences that reflected various environmental, economic, cultural, and demographic factors.

E. Distance and Britain's initially lax attention led to the colonies creating SELF-GOVERNING institutions that were unusually democratic for the era. The New England colonies based power in participatory town meetings, which in turn elected members to their colonial legislatures; in the Southern colonies, elite planters exercised local authority and also dominated the elected assemblies.

III. Competition over resources between European rivals and American Indians encouraged industry and
trade and led to conflict in the Americas.
D. The goals and interests of European leaders and colonists at times diverged, leading to a growing
mistrust on both sides of the Atlantic. Colonists, especially in British North America, expressed dissatisfaction over issues including territorial settlements, frontier defense, SELF-RULE, and trade.

Key Concept 2.2: The British colonies participated in political, social, cultural, and economic exchanges with Great Britain that encouraged both stronger bonds with Britain and resistance to Britain's control.
D) Colonists' resistance to imperial control drew on local experiences of self-government, evolving ideas of liberty, the political thought of the Enlightenment, greater religious independence and diversity, and an
ideology critical of perceived corruption in the imperial system.


(source: 2015 Revised College Board Content Outline for A.P. U.S. History)
ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE
Period 2: 1607-1754

Key Concept 2.1: Europeans developed a variety of colonization and migration patterns, influenced by different imperial goals, cultures, and the varied North American environments where they settled, and they competed with each other and American Indians for resources.

III. Competition over resources between European rivals and American Indians encouraged industry and trade and led to conflict in the Americas.
A. An Atlantic economy developed in which goods, as well as enslaved Africans and American Indians, were
exchanged between Europe, Africa, and the Americas through extensive trade networks. European colonial
economies focused on acquiring, producing, and exporting commodities that were valued in Europe and gaining new sources of labor.
II. Like other European empires in the Americas that participated in the Atlantic slave trade, the English colonies developed a system of slavery that reflected the specific economic, demographic, and geographic characteristics of those colonies.

A) All the British colonies participated to varying degrees in the ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE due to the abundance of land and a growing European demand for colonial goods, as well as a shortage of indentured servants. Small New England farms used relatively few enslaved laborers, all port cities held significant minorities of enslaved people, and the emerging plantation systems of the Chesapeake and the southernmost Atlantic coast had large numbers of enslaved workers, while the great majority of enslaved Africans were sent to the West Indies.

B) As chattel slavery became the dominant labor system in many southern colonies, new laws created a strict racial system that prohibited interracial relationships and defined the descendants of African American mothers as black and enslaved in perpetuity.

(source: 2015 Revised College Board Content Outline for A.P. U.S. History)