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Unit 4: The Renaissance & Reformation
Terms in this set (46)
The rebirth of art and learning that took place in Europe from 1300 to 1600. It began in Italy because they had thriving cities, a wealthy merchant class, and the classical heritage of Greece and Rome.
Focused on human potential and achievements. Humanists studied classical text to understand ancient Greek values instead of trying to make the texts agree with Christian teaching. Humanists influenced artists and architects to carry on classical traditions and they also popularized the study of subjects common to classical education (history, literature, and philosophy).
Worldly and concerned with the here and now.
A person who gives financial or other support to a person, organization, cause, or activity. Renaissance popes became patrons of the arts by financially supporting artists. The merchants also were patrons of the arts. Wealthy families, such as the Medici, generously supported artists by having their portraits painted or by donating public art to the city. Being a patron was how the wealthy demonstrated their own importance.
A drawing technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions. Classical artists used perspective but it was abandoned and forgotten by Medieval artists until it was rediscovered in the 1400s by Italian artists. Since its rediscovery, it has remained an important part of Western art.
The everyday language of a homeland. Few remarkable poets used this instead of writing in Latin because most people couldn't read or understand Latin. Vernacular writings brought literature to many people and let the writers write with self-expression and portray the individuality of their subjects.
How did humanism influence the growth of learning?
Humanists popularized the study of history, literature, and philosophy.
How did ideas about piety and a simple life change?
Classical teachings influenced the thought that people can enjoy life without offending God. To show wealth by enjoying material luxuries, fine art, and tasty foods.
What role did patrons of the arts play in the development of Renaissance ideas?
They played a huge role because they were the ones who financial supported and pushed artists to make public art. This showed the importance of the producer and made artistic ideas available to the public.
What effects did the emphasis on individuals have on painters and sculptors?
The made people in painting appear more realistic and expressed the person's personally. They brought back classical techniques and values in art, such as perspective and glorification of the human body.
How did writers reflect Renaissance values in their work?
They wrote in vernacular which was when they wrote in their homeland language instead of Latin. This made their writings understandable to common-folk and let writers write with more self-expression and portray individuality.
Why does the Renaissance begin in Italy?
-They were the middle-men of the Mediterranean trade.
-Traded both foreign and domestically.
-Heritage of Greece and Rome.
-Wealthy merchant class developed.
What is the impact of wealth accumulation on society?
-Want to show off wealth.
-Dignity of man.
-Era of wealth of knowledge.
-Rediscovery and evaluation of knowledge.
-Knowledge available to more people.
-More detailed art.
->People are good.
->Engaged in community.
S - Secularism
->concerned with this world/here and now
W - Wealth/Capitalism
->Merchants had the most cash flow.
I - Individualism
S - Studies, learning, knowledge
->Greek an Roman classics brought to light.
->More people being educated.
C - Classicism
->Respecting the classical era (Greek + Roman).
-->Knowing Greek and Latin.
-->Reading Greek and Roman epics.
H - Humanism
-->People are good.
-->Engaged in community
-->Learning Greek/Roman studies.
->Completely focused on religion.
->Characters look alike.
->More accurate/extreme in detail.
->Characters look different from each other
What factors led to the beginning of the Renaissance in northern Europe?
-Rapid growth of cities.
-Urban merchants became wealthy enough to sponsor artists.
-Rulers sponsored the arts.
-War in Italy (1494) caused many artists to flee to the North and spread their ideas there.
How did the invention of the printing press help spread learning and Renaissance ideas?
It enables many more people to have books and therefore knowledge. This made education more easily assessable and made ideas spread quicker.
In Greek, it means "no place'', but in English it has come to mean an ideal place because of Thomas More's book.
A machine that presses paper against a tray full of inked movable type. It made books more available to the common people and spread ideas.
A complete Bible that Gutenberg printed in 1455 using his printing press. It was the first full-size book printed with movable type.
Why and how did the Northern Renaissance differ from the Italian Renaissance?
-End of Hundred Years' War
-Urban Growth (Cities)
-Merchants and artists bring back ideas of Italian Renaissance.
New Ideas (Italian Renaissance)+Northern Traditions= Northern Renaissance
Northern Renaissance Art vs. Italian Renaissance Art
-More realistic, common scene
-Everyday life of ordinary people
-Less expression of drama
-More realistic painting/picture/detailed
-Classical era scene and themes
-Portrayed of dramatic expression on faces.
Why did Machiavelli write "The Prince" and address it to Lorenzo de Medici?
Machiavelli wrote it in hope of being allowed to return to government services and as it being a gift of knowledge, "..I have not found among my belongings anything I prize so much or value so highly as my knowledge of the actions of men, acquired through long experience of contemporary affairs and extended reading in those of antiquity."
How does "The Prince" illustrate a humanistic outlook on politics?
-Questions whether it is better to be loved than feared/feared than loved.
-Make good use of fighting with both laws and force.
-Explains the dangers of a mercenary-made army.
-Be involved in military strategy.
-To be a good considered a prince, "Thus some are considered generous, others stingy'; some prince must know how to use both these two natures, and that one without the other has no lasting effect."
-Have an interest in his people's livings and shape/support it.
-It is better to be rash than timid.
What Machiavelli's work tell us about the political environment of 16th century Italy?
A lot of the state's power was in the hands of the "prince" but the people's opinions/public opinion matter in order for the prince to be successful. The prince refers to the controlling merchants who held the power, such as the Medici family.
Do you agree with the statement that "good laws" rest on "good arms"? Why? Why not?
Yes because of how well it worked in the Roman Empire. You not only need good laws but good enforcement of them to keep the people in order.
A pardon, it released a sinner from performing the penalty, such as saying certain prayers, that a priest imposed for sins. Tetzel sold indulgences as part of raising money to rebuild St.Peter's Cathedral in Rome and gave the impression that by buying indulgences, they could but their way into heaven.
A monk who took a public stand on the Friar Tetzel for selling indulgences. Luther started the Reformation and led to the founding of Christian churches that did not accept the pope's authority. He wanted a full reform of the Church and mainly taught that faith alone was the key to salvation. Luther was excommunicated by Pope Leo X in 1520 when the Church saw him as a serious threat. The Holy Roman Emperor declared Luther an outlaw and heretic and ordered all his books to be burned, but one of the rulers disobeyed the Emperor and sheltered Luther. When Luther returned to Wittenberg in 1522, many idea ideas had been in practice and he had in fact created a separate group from the Church called the Lutherans.
A friar who sold indulgences as part of raising money to rebuild St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome and gave the impression that by buying indulgences, they could but their way into heaven
A movement for a religious reform.
A separate religious group breaking off from the Church who were led by Luther and believed that the Pope had no authority.
Princes who supported Luther. It later applied to Christians who belonged to non-Catholic churches.
Peace of Augsburg
After the civil war between the Catholic Church and the Protestants, all the Princes agreed in 1555 that the religion of each German state was to be decided by its ruler.
Luther and Reformation basic timeline
1. Luther goes to Rome and what he sees (poor people, the pope in full gold armor, clergy involved in prostitution, indulgences, merchandising, etc.) and is upset by it.
2. Goes back home and becomes a doctor of Christianity, soon becomes professor and debates the religion's/Church's rules (against indulgences and relics).
3. A friar, Johnn Tetzel, was selling indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome.
4. In 1517, Luther posts his 95 theses on the church door at Wittenberg.
-> This began the Reformation and led to the founding of Christian churches that didn't accept the pope's authority. Also, the 95 theses were copied and printed, so Luther's ideas spread.
5. Luther's ideas become increasingly radical and threatened the Pope's position and authority.
6. Luther is excommunicated in 1520 and in 1521, he is declared an outlaw and a heretic.
7. Prince Rederick the Wise of Saxony disobeyed the Holy Roman Emperor and sheltered Luther.
8. When Luther was in hiding, his followers thought he was dead. They radicalized Luther's teachings and started revolting/mobbing the countryside in 1524. Burning churches, killing clergy members, etc.
9. When Luther came out of hiding, he denounced the mobbing peasants for corrupting his work., which turned many against him.
10. Catholic Church declared war on Protestants and won but couldn't bring Protestant Princes back into Church. The Princes would rather choose to be executed than give up their faith.
-> The Peace of Augsburg is signed in 1555 and declared that the religion of each German state was declared by the ruler.
People's afterlives are already decided and that God, since the beginning of time, has known who will be saved and who will be damned.
The religion based on Calvin's teachings that men and women are sinful by nature and only a few (the "elect") will be saved, and this is already determined by God through predestination. It's influential because many Protestant churches today can trace their roots back to Calvin. Believed in theocracy. Rules: no bright clothing, no card games, preaching different doctrines was punishable by being burned at the stake.
A government controlled by religious leaders.
Protestants in Geneva, Switzerland asked Calvin to lead their city in 1541 based on his beliefs. The city was governed by strict rules. Authorities would imprison, excommunicate, and banish those who broke the rules, Anyone who preached different doctrines might by burned at the stake. To many Protestants, Geneva was a model city of highly moral citizens.
Followers of John Know in Scotland, who put Calvin's ideas to work in Scottish towns in 1559. Each community church governed by a small group of laymen (elders/presbyters)
They believed that they should only baptize persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian. They also taught that church and state should be separate, to refuse to fight in wars, and to share their possessions. They were persecuted by Catholics and Protestants as radicals who threatened society.
The reforming of the Catholic Church .
Members of the Society of Jesus who followed Ignatius's spiritual exercises. They founded superb schools across Europe, used missionaries to convert non-Christians to Catholicism, and tried to stop Protestantism from spreading.
Why were the effects of the work of Jesuit missionaries so long lasting?
-Overcome that drift toward Protestantism in Poland and southern Germany.
-Converted many native people (Americas, Africa)
Council of Trent
The Pope (Paul III) called a great counsel of Church leaders to meet in Trent. Through the course of almost 20 years, Catholic bishops and cardinals agreed the following:
-the Church's interpretation of the Bible was final.
-any Christian who substituted his/her's own interpretation on the Bible was a heretic.
-need for faith and good works for salvation.
-Bible and Church equal authorities.
-Indulgences were valid expressions of faith.
What role did Popes Paul III and Paul IV play in reforming the Catholic Church?
-Investigated the selling of indulgences
-Approved Jesuit's order (Society of Jesus)
-Used Inquisition to punish heresy in papal territory
-Made the Counsel of Trent.
-Carried out Council of Trent decrees.
-Made the Index of Forbidden Books
-> Mass book burnings
What were some important effects of the Reformation?
-Protestant churches flourished.
-Religion no longer united Europe.
-Church's power declined.
-Individual monarchs and states gained power.
->Paved way for modern nation-states
-Groundwork for the rejection of Christian belief the occurred in Western culture in later centuries.