93 terms

Mr. Blanck's AP Eng Lit terms

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Allegory
The representation of abstract ideas of principles by charachters, figures, or events in narrative, dramatic or pictoral form
Alliteration
The repitition of the same consonant sound at the beginning of several words in a line of poetry
Ambiguity
When an author lieaves out details/information or is unclear about an event so the reader will use his/her imagination to fill in the blanks
Anaphora
Repitition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive lines in a poem
Anecdote
A short story or joke told at the beginning of a speech to gain the audience's attention
Antagonist
The protagonist's adversary
Anti-climatic
When the ending of the plot in poetry or prose is unfufilling or lackluster
Apostrophe
When a character speaks to a charachter or object that is not present or is unable to respond
Assonance
The repitition of the same vowel sound in a phrase or line of poetry
Blank verse
Name for unrhymed iambic pentameter.
Iamb
A metrical foot in which an unstressed syllable is followed by a stressed syllable. In iambic pentameter there are 5 iambs per line making 10 syllables
Climax
The turning point in the plot or the high point of action
Colloquial language
Informal, conversational language. Colloquialisms are phrases or sayings that are indicative of a specific region
Connotation
An idea or meaning suggseted by or associated with a word or thing
Convention
An understanding between a reader and a writer about certain details of a stroy that does not need to be explained
Consonance
The repitition of consonant sounds in a phrase of line of poetry. The consonant sound may be at the beginning, middle, or end of the word.
Couplet
2 rhyming lines in poetry
Deus ex machina
Term that refers to a character or force that appears at the end of a story or play to help resolve conflict. Means "god from a machine". In ancienct Greek drama, gods were lowered onto the stage by a mechanism to extricate characters from a seemingly hopeless situation. The phrase has come to mean any turn of events that solve the character's problems through an unexpected and unlikely intervention
Diction
Word choice or the use of words in speech or writing
Denouement (day-new-mon)
The final resolution or clarification of a dramtic or narrative plot
Doppelganger
The alter ego of a character. The suppressed side of one's personality that is usually unaccepted by society.
Elegy
A poem or song composed especially as a lament for a deceased person
Emotive language
Deliberate use of language by a writer to instill a feeling or visual
Enjambment
The continuation of reading one line of a poem to the next with no pause, a run on line
Epic
An extended narrative poem in elevated or dignified language, celebrating the feats of a legendary or traditonal hero
Epilogue
A short poem or speech spoken directly to the audience following the conclusion of a play, or in a novel the epilogue is a short explanation at the end of the book that indicates what happens after the plot ends.
Epiphany
Sudden enlightenment or realization, a profound new outlook or understanding about the world usually attained while doing everyday or mundane activities
Epistolary
Used to describe a novel that tells its story through letters written from one charachter to another
Euphemisim
The act of substituting a harsh, blunt, or offensive comment for a more politically accepted or positive one
Euphony
A succession of words which are pleasing to the ear. These words may be alliterative, utilize consonance or assonance, and are often used in poetry but also seen in prose
Expansion
Adds an unstressed syllable and a contraction or elision removes an unstressed syllable in order to maintain the rhythmic meter of a line. Th' instead of the, o'er for over, 'tis for it is
Fable
A usually short narrative making an ediifying or cautionary point and often employing as characters animals that speak and act like humans
Feminine ending
Term that refers to an unstressed extra syllable at the end of a line of iambic pentameter
Figurative language
Speech or writing that departs from literal meaning in order to achieve a special effect or meaning. Speech or writing employing figures of speech.
Flashback
When a character remembers a past event that is relevant to the current action of the story
Flat character
A literary character whose personality can be defined by one or two traits and does not change over the course of the story. Flat characters are usually minor or insignificant characters.
Foil
A character that by contrast underscores or enhances the distinctive characteristics of another.
Folklore
The traditional beliefs, myths, tales, and practices of a people, transmitted orally.
Foot
The metrical length of a line is determined by the number of feet it contains. Monometer: One foot Dimeter: Two feet Trimeter: Three feet Tetrameter: Four feet Pentameter: Five feet Hexameter: Six feet Heptameter: Seven feet The most common feet have two to three syllables, with one stressed.
Trochee
A trochaic foot has two syllables. The first is stressed and the second is unstressed.
Dactyl
A dactylic foot has three syllables beginning with a stressed syllable; the other two unstressed.
Anapest
An anapestic foot has three syllables. The first two are unstressed with the third stressed.
Foreshadowing
Clues in the text about incidents that will occur later in the plot, foreshadowing creates anticipation in the novel.
Free verse
Type of verse that contains a variety of line lengths, is unrhymed, and lacks traditional meter
Genre
A category of artistic composition, as in music or literature, marked by a distinctive style, form, or content.
Gothic novel
A genre of fiction characterized by mystery and supernatural horror, often set in a dark castle or other medieval setting
Heroine
A woman noted for courage and daring action or the female protagonist.
Hubris
Used in Greek tragedies, refers to excessive pride that usually leads to a hero's downfall.
Hyperbole
A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or comic/dramatic effect
Illocution
Language that avoids meaning of the words. When we speak, sometimes we conceal intentions or side step the true subject of a conversation. Writing illocution expresses two stories, one of which is not apparent to the characters, but is apparent to the reader. For example, if two characters are discussing a storm on the surface it may seem like a simple discussion of the weather, however, the reader should interpret the underlying meaning-that the relationship is in turmoil, chaos, is unpredictable. As demonstrated the story contains an underlying meaning or parallel meanings.
Imagery
The use of vivid or figurative language to represent objects, actions, or ideas.
In medias res
A story that begins in the middle of things.
Inversion
In poetry is an intentional digression from ordinary word order which is used to maintain regular meters. For example, rather than saying "the rain came" a poem may say "came the rain". Meters can be formed by the insertion or absence of a pause.
Irony
When one thing should occur, is apparent, or in logical sequence but the opposite actually occurs. Example: A man in the ocean might say, "Water, water everywhere and not a drop to drink."
Dramatic Irony
When the audience or reader knows something characters do not know
Verbal Irony
When one thing is said, but something else, usually the opposite, is meant
Cosmic Irony
When a higher power toys with human expectations
Masculine ending
Stressed extra syllable at the end of a line
Memoir
An account of the personal experiences of an author.
Meter
The measured arrangement of words in poetry, as by accentual rhythm, syllabic quantity, or the number of syllables in a line.
Metaphor
A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison; this comparison does not use like or as.
Metonymy
The use of a word or phrase to stand in for something else which it is often associated. ie. Lamb means Jesus
Motif
A dominant theme or central idea.
Narrator
Someone who tells a story. First person: The narrator is a character in the story Third person objective: The narrator does not tell what anyone is thinking; the "fly on a wall" Third person limited: The narrator is able to tell the thoughts of one character Third person omniscient: The narrator is able to tell the thoughts of any character
Novella
A short novel usually under 100 pages
Neutral language
Language opposite from emotive language as it is literal or even objective in nature
Oblique rhyme
Imperfect rhyme scheme
Ode
A lyric poem of some length, usually of a serious or meditative nature and having an elevated style and formal stanzaic structure. An ode celebrates something. John Keats is known for writing odes.
Onomatopoeia
The formation or use of words such as buzz or murmur that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to.
Paradox
Statement which seems to contradict itself. i.e. His old face was youthful when he heard the news.
Parody
A literary or artistic work that imitates the characteristic style of an author or a work for comic effect or ridicule. i.e. SNL or Weird Al Yankovich.
Personification
A figure of speech in which inanimate objects or abstractions are endowed with human qualities or are represented as possessing human form.
Poetic justice
The rewarding of virtue and the punishment of vice in the resolution of a plot. The character, as they say, gets what he/she deserves.
Prequel
A literary, dramatic, or cinematic work whose narrative takes place before that of a preexisting work or a sequel.
Prologue
An introduction or preface, especially a poem recited to introduce a play
Prose
Ordinary speech or writing without metrical structure, written in paragraph form. Novels and short stories are referred to as prose.
Protagonist
The main character in a drama or literary work.
Pun
Play on words, when two words have multiple meanings and spellings and are used in a humorous manner.
Rhyme
the repetition of sounds in words
Rhyme scheme
The act of assigning letters in the alphabet to demonstrate the rhyming lines in a poem.
Rising action
The events of a dramatic or narrative plot preceding the climax.
Rites of passage
An incident which creates tremendous growth signifying a transition from adolescence to adulthood.
Round character
A character who is developed over the course of the book, round characters are usually major characters in a novel.
Resolution
Solution to the conflict in literature.
Satire
A literary work in which human vice or folly is attacked through irony, derision, or wit; the goal is to change the behavior/issue. Authors known for satires are Jonathan Swift and George Orwell.
Simile
A figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are compared, often in a phrase introduced by like or as.
Slang
A kind of language occurring chiefly in casual and playful speech, made up typically of short-lived coinages and figures of speech that are deliberately used in place of standard terms for added raciness, humor, irreverence, or other effect.
Soliloquy
A dramatic or literary form of discourse in which a character talks to himself or herself or reveals his or her thoughts without addressing a listener. Typical in plays.
Sonnet
A poem with fourteen lines. An Italian sonnet subdivides into two quatrains and two tercets; while an English sonnet subdivides into three quatrains and one couplet. A volta is a sudden change of thought which is common in sonnets.
Style
The combination of distinctive features of literary or artistic expression, execution, or performance characterizing a particular person, group, school, or era.
Symbolisim
Something that represents something else by association, resemblance, or convention, especially a material object used to represent something invisible.
Tragedy
A drama or literary work in which the main character is brought to ruin or suffers extreme sorrow, especially as a consequence of a tragic flaw, moral weakness, or inability to cope with unfavorable circumstances.
Tone
Reflects how the author feels about the subject matter or the feeling the author wants to instill in the reader.