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POLS 1100 Quizes 1 and 2
Terms in this set (50)
Beginning in the 1600s, the 17th century, the majority of Europeans who came to the "New World" of America" were seeking WHAT?
Freedom (personal, religious, economic)
In 1689, the author of the Second Treatise on Civil Government presents a governmental theory of WHAT?
Freedom and liberty (natural rights)
In 1620, WHICH group which had sailed from England (after a brief stay in The Netherlands) landed in Massachusetts and established a strict code of governing authority and obedience while also emphasizing individualism?
Pilgrims and/or Puritans
In 1607 the first successful settlement in the New World established by English settlers was begun near the Atlantic Ocean and given WHAT name?
In 1776, Who wrote the first draft of America's Declaration of Independence -- expressing reasons for the Revolutionary War?
Given Americans today say that England's is the "mother country" of the United States and English is America's "mother tongue," WHICH community was the first English settlement in "The New World?
Prior to 1700, WHICH group of European settlers created a community that would later have its name changed to "New York" (and in 1898 would become the largest city in the future United States?
Prior to the arrival of explorers and settlers from the European continent, during the previous 30,000 years, WHAT has been the largest number of indigenous peoples estimated to have lived on lands that would become the future United States of America?
After the exploratory voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot in the late 1400s, the O'Connor/Sabato/Yanus American Government: Roots and Reform textbook asserts WHAT was the most common initial reason for settlement of the American colonies?
In 1632, King Charles I of England granted a formal royal charter to encourage members of the Catholic faith to leave England and settle WHERE in the New World?
Colony of Maryland
In 1681, the King of England granted a formal royal charter to William Penn with the official intent to establish "the holy experiment" in the "New World" where WHAT persecuted religious minority group could live in peace?
In 1631 WHICH newly-arrived Englishman to Massachusetts was banished (ordered to leave the colony) because the colony's Puritan leaders declared him to be a "heretic" for openly disagreeing with them on questions of religion and governing?
The period of history when the 17th century (the 1600s) ended and the new 18th century (the 1700s) began -- a time period when political and governmental thinkers were proclaiming that common people should have unprecedented rights and freedoms -- was known as WHAT?
WHO, in his 1651 essay "The Leviathan," reasoned that to live life in England without the protection and services of government would greatly harm the common people -- because their lives would be "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short?"
The author of the 1689 essay "Second Treatise of Civil Government" argued that common people, wanting protection from daily conflicts, should seek WHAT?
Individual Freedom and Liberty
The idea or political theory that governments establish their legitimacy and power from the common people to be governed is referred to as WHAT?
In the 1600s, in the English colony of Massachusetts, WHICH Puritan figure dared to criticize Puritan leaders publicly by asserting that those believing in the teachings of Jesus should practice religious tolerance in both religious beliefs and government practices -- however, in response, Puritan leaders declared this Puritan's criticisms were criticisms of God, and banished this critic from the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
In terms of millions of people, approximately WHEN and generally from WHERE did immigration of minority peoples to the "New World" of America peak -- when nearly 9 million million people left their "old world" to begin living in the "new world?"
1900-1910: Mostly Eastern Europe
In the 1600s and 1700s, WHAT goal were explorers and colonists seeking -- arriving from Western Europe -- as they sought to acquire a better quality of life in the "New World?"
ALL the following are identified by Chapter 1 in your required textbook to be "functions" of American Government -- duties and purposes of the new and unique "experiment in democracy" (George Washington's words) EXCEPT WHAT?
Regional Growth and Expansion
Today in the 21st century, your required textbook, American Government: Roots and Reform, Chapter 1, declares WHAT to be TRUE about the number of all U.S. households which consist of ONLY ONE PERSON?
One-third or about 33%
The textbook American Government: Roots and Reform, Chapter 1, points out that today in the 21st century, the United States is the third most populous nation in the world. ALL the following are characteristics of "the changing American people" EXCEPT?
WHICH is NOT one of the "basic tenets" of American Democracy and American Political Culture described in Chapter 1 of your required textbook, American Government: Roots and Reform?
Securing the Blessings of Liberty
The textbook American Government: Roots and Reform, Chapter 1, concluded that an American ideal of a happy, successful life, which often includes wealth, a house, a better life for one's children, and for some, the opportunity to grow up to be President, is characterized as WHAT?
The American Dream
Chapter 1 in your required textbook American Government: Roots and Reform," reasons that "Political Ideology" is present in each nation in the world, and varies state-to-state within the United States. WHICH is NOT one of the "functions" that political scientists attribute to ideologies?
In the late 1700s, WHO was a highly visible political figure in Massachusetts, and was arguably the outspoken leader of revolt and rebellion in Boston, against British rule in the American colonies?
Beginning in the mid-17th century, WHAT was an economic theory implemented by Great Britain which was intended to increase that nation's financial wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance of trade -- a theory that justified England's continuation of strict import and export controls on the American colonies?
In 1765, WHAT formal/official action by England's Parliament would be seen by many American colonists as act of intimidation and espionage -- and would later be referenced by American lawmakers who would create a Constitutional guarantee or protection given to all Americans against a powerful government in 1791?
In 1765, in New York City, two years after the end of the French and Indian War, WHAT historic event occurred that would constitute the first-ever formal meeting of the American colonies -- an official meeting that would constitute the first step or move to create a unified American nation?
Stamp Act Congress
In 1772, in Boston, two years after the volatile and controversial confrontation between British soldiers guarding the downtown customs house and American colonists resulting in a shooting (and the deaths of five young Americans), the well-known and provocative cousin of Boston lawyer John Adams organized WHAT that was intended to keep opponents of British rule throughout the American colonies more fully informed of revolutionary efforts?
Committees of Correspondence
The 1786 rebellion in which an army of 1,500 disgruntled farmers marched on the capital city in Massachusetts to prevent foreclosure on their farms, was called WHAT?
WHO was an Englishman who had migrated to America seeking personal freedom and soon found himself identifying with American colonials rather than England's king and Parliament, and therefore, eventually felt sufficiently angry at what he perceived to be oppressive rule by England's royal government that he wrote words -- with the encouragement of Benjamin Franklin -- that would inspire and motivate Americans who shared his anti-monarchy words calling for revolt and revolution?
On March 5, 1770, after Great Britain had sent 4,000 uniformed troops into an American city to suppress open dissent against British rule over the American colonies, WHAT occurred that resulted in the violent deaths of five young Americans -- an event that soon became a rallying cry for those calling for an American Revolution?
In 1774, between September 5th and October 26th, WHICH formal meeting in Philadelphia of Americans opposed to British colonial rule was intended simply to resolve differences between England and America, and the American representatives drafted a Declaration of Rights and Resolves?
First Continental Congress
Three weeks after an unprecedented and unplanned military confrontation between British troops and American colonial soldiers, WHAT meeting occurred where those Americans who attended were united in their open hostility toward Great Britain but wished to avoid war -- and therefore, they presented to the King of England the Olive Branch Petition asking for an end to military confrontations with American colonists?
Second Continental Congress
WHERE and WHEN did the American Revolution begin -- although at the time, leaders in England and in the 13 colonial states did not fully realize that an unplanned military confrontation in a rural country area between British regular troops and American "minutemen" was to result in a war lasting eight years?
Massachusetts in 1775: Lexington and Concord
In late 1777, WHAT unprecedented brief written constitution was approved by America's part-time citizen Congress (after considerable debate) -- unprecedented since England did not have a written constitution -- with the hope that this new constitution would allow the 13 colony states to govern wisely and win a revolutionary war against Great Britain?
Articles of Confederation
In 1775 the American Revolution had begun with no formal declaration of war or explanation for why the revolt had begun, but it was not until 1776 that America's lawmakers acted to declare the (28) reasons why a revolutionary war had begun when it designated "The Committee of Five" to produce a formal explanation -- with this Committee of Five being headed by the only non-lawyer in the group which was WHOM"?
On April 18, 1775 the American Revolution had begun with a deadly military confrontation between British soldiers and American colonial "minutemen," and subsequently nine months followed without a public explanation of exactly why England and America were engaging in acts of war until January 10, 1776 when WHAT was published that declared a reasonably convincing argument for an American Revolution against the most powerful country in the world to that time?
In 1777, as the American Revolutionary War was being fought, American leaders approved an unprecedented written constitution -- but it was not ratified by all 13 states until 1781 because a number of states perceived certain "weaknesses" or problems with that constitution, however, during the years immediately following the American Revolution WHAT was NOT perceived to be an apparent "problem" for the national government?
Congress did not achieve a formal end to the Revolutionary War
Although America's first constitution was created during the second year of the American Revolution, it became highly controversial after the unprecedented war when many apparent problems quickly emerged that resulted in conflicts between the newly created states -- with WHAT weakness or problem being perceived (by your textbook) to constitute the "greatest weakness" of the Articles of Confederation?
It did not provide for a strong central government
In 1787 (May-September), American leaders fearful that America's first constitution had become a failing government structure met in Philadelphia for "the sole and express purpose of revising it," however, delegates representing the first state to arrive (outside of the state of Pennsylvania) came with proposals to give states with large populations significantly new legislative powers over states with relatively smaller populations. This proposal was WHAT?
In 1787 the framers of the second constitution who voted to replace the first constitution had to make many compromises in order to construct a governing document that they would eventually approve by a vote of 38-3. WHICH was NOT one of the essential parts of "The Great Compromise?"
Power would be shared equally between the national government and state governments -- with neither have sovereign authority over the other, in order to avoid civil war
On September 17, 1787, at the conclusion of the Constitutional Convention, southern states (with an agricultural economy based largely on the labor of slaves) were willing to vote for a new second constitution to replace the first constitution because of WHAT specified in the new constitution would significantly inflate or enlarge their voting power in the new U.S. House of Representatives?
In 1787, during the months of May to September, the 55 delegates who attended the Philadelphia ("Constitutional") Convention in Philadelphia -- representing 12 states, not 13 states -- and approved the (second) Constitution of the United States can be described HOW?
They were college educated
Average 42-43 years of age
Fearful the U.S. would lose in peace what it had gained in war
Very concerned America's first constitution was failing to solve problems
WHAT part of the new national or federal or central government created by America's second constitution was indeed a new component which was clearly absent or missing in the first constitution?
In 1787, delegates from 12 of the 13 states attending the closed-door four-month meeting in Philadelphia were very concerned with government officials having too much power, however, WHERE did the framers of the second constitution decide NOT to place any limits on government officials?
Terms for legislative office
With regard to the structure of the 1787 United States Constitution, when compared with the Articles of Confederation, WHICH was TRUE of BOTH the second constitution and the first constitution?
Congress was authorized to build a navy
The 1787 U.S. Constitution designated the President to have constitutional power to act as a civilian "Commander-in-Chief" overseeing the nation's military, and therefore has power to send U.S. troops into a region of the world to protect U.S. national security interests -- however, TODAY he/she must seek authorization from the Legislative branch or Congress in order to keep U.S. soldiers in that hostile region longer than 90 days because of WHAT?
1973 War Powers Act
In 1787 at the Philadelphia Convention (later called the "Constitutional Convention",) the framers devised an unprecedented method of counting official votes when electing a President of the United States, and a year later the only delegate representing the state of New York (Alexander Hamilton) wrote WHAT to justify the creation of the Electoral College?
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