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Environmental Science Final
Terms in this set (77)
During what part of human history have population growth rates been the highest?
in the middle of the twentieth century (the mid-1900s)
What is the precautionary principle?
when an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken
Ex: You would limit your exposure to BPA because there is a chance that it might cause harm
what is sustainability?
meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
Example of sustainability: make a management plan for sustainable harvest of yellowfin tuna
an estimation of how much tuna can be harvested each year while maintaining the tuna population at a size that allows for continued harvest
You are studying two populations of bacteria, a large population and a small population. The bacteria are the same species, live in similar habitats with plenty of resources, and have the same per capita rates of increase 'r'. Both populations are exhibiting exponential growth. If everything else is the same between the two populations then,
the large population will have a larger population growth rate than the small population
What is the best definition of 'K' (logistic population growth)?
carrying capacity: the maximum number of organisms that an environment can support
If an environment has a carrying capacity of 1000 individuals for a given species, and 2000 individuals of that species are present, we can predict what about the population size?
population size will decrease
90% of the world's population growth in the next century is expected to occur in what countries?
What has been the primary cause of global human population growth over the past century?
declining death rates
The demographic transition refers to a country's change from what? (birth and death rates)
high birth and death rates and low birth and death rates
In the exponential model of population growth, if r is greater than 0 then what happens to population size?
population size increases
On average, how many children are born to each couple if a country has zero population growth and is in stage 4 of the demographic transition model?
What is the typical relationship between a country's fertility rate and its level of education for women?
Negative correlation, as education increases fertility rates decrease
A population of elephants has logistic population growth and is at carrying capacity. Describe the birth and death rates of this elephant population?
the birth rates are approximately equal to the death rates
What is a major difference between the exponential and logistic growth models?
the exponential model assumes unlimited resources, but the logistic model assumes limited resources
A population of 1000 lemurs is subject to logistic growth. under normal conditions, this population grows at a rate of 0.5 lemurs per individual per year; however, the maximum number of lemurs the ecosystem can support is 5000. Because of this, only 400 lemurs were added to the population this year. Identify r, K, and dN/dt in this population
r=0.5 lemur per year
dN/dt=400 lemurs per year
A population of antelope was recently impacted by a fire that swept across the savannah, killing off many individuals. once the fire stopped, the remaining antelope faced strong competition amongst themselves for the small amount of food that remained. what is the density-dependent factor and its impact of birth rate.
limited food resources, decrease in birth rate
What is density-dependence?
as density increases, birth rate decreases and as density increases, death rate increases
ex: over grazing, disease (flu), predators
What is density- independence?
dont depend on population size or density
ex: natural disasters, rain/weather, human behavior, man-made disasters, diseases (cancer)
What are the three types of survivorship curves?
Type 1: most live a long life (humans)
Type 2: die at equal rates regardless of age (birds)
Type 3: high rates of death at a young age (fish)
What is the exponential growth model? and what does each one stand for?
dN/dt = rN
dN/dt: population growth rate
N: population size
r: per capita rate of increase
Does a larger population increase slower or faster than a smaller population?
What is the logistic growth model?
dN/dt = rN (1-N/K)
What is the IPAT equation and what does it stand for?
I (total impact) = P (Population) x A (Affluence or money) x T (technology)
What are the types of provisioning services?
Provisioning, regulating, cultural services, and supporting services
What are the factors that change population?
BIDE (Birth, immigration, death, emigration)
What is an environmental impact associated with oil sand (tar sands) from Alberta, Canada?
mining and refining this out produces large amounts of CO2
What are environmental impacts associated with extraction of oil and natural gas by 'fracking?'
groundwater contamination and spills associated with the waste material
Based on these residence times, which air pollutant(s) would be most likely to have a global impact?
CO2: 50-100 years
Nitrous oxide: 130 years
Tropospheric ozone: weeks-months
Ammonia: 3 days
Sulfur Oxide: 3 days
Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide
The Montreal Protocol of 1987 resulted in agreements to reduce the amount of ________ introduced into the atmosphere because of ____________.
CFCs; destruction of ozone in the stratosphere
There are environmental and human health impacts associated with both extracting and combusting oil. Which of the following correctly matches the impact with its source?
- Depletion of the ozone layer: oil extraction
- oil spills like the BP Deepwater Horizon: oil combustion
- acid mine drainage: oil combustion
- natural gas flares: oil extraction
natural gas flares: oil extraction
How does acid rain form?
when nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants react with water in the atmosphere forming a mildly acidic solution
Natural gas is predominantly what?
Why does a chain reaction occur inside a nuclear reactor?
During each fission reaction, three neutrons are released (on average) each of which goes on to hit other nuclei, causing them to split
What is the purpose of the Keystone xl pipeline?
to transport oil from the oil sand in Alberta, Canada to the US
Why do supporters of biofuels claim that biofuels are carbon neutral?
when biofuels are grown they take CO2 out of the atmosphere and this balances out the CO2 that they add to the atmosphere when they are burned
Direct conversion of sunlight into electricity, without using an intermediate fluid medium, is accomplished by what?
How does photochemical smog form?
when nitrogen oxides and VOCs react with sunlight to form ground level ozone
Which one will most likely need to produce more energy for electricity in the next 50 years?
- ethipoia which is entering stage 3
- somalia which is in stage 1
- japan which has a declining birth rate
- sweden which is in stage 4
Ethiopia entering stage 3
What happened because of the Clean Air Act?
the US has reduced lead and sulfur dioxide emissions
A concern about alternative energy is that some types are intermittent and can't be counted on for a constant supply of electricity. This concern is most applicable to which type(s) of alternative energy sources?
wind and solar
Imagine your home in GA has geothermal heating and cooling. Water is piped underground and then that water is piped throughout your house. in the cooler months of the year, the water in the pipes that come out of the ground is what compared to the ambient (outside) temperature?
warmer than the ambient air temperature
Our weather occurs in the ________ and the ozone layer is in the __________.
Which of the following is a risk associated with offshore oil drilling?
-air pollution that causes acid rain
-groundwater contamination and seismic activity
-oil spills that affect wildlife and jobs
- children are negatively affected by lead contamination
oil spills that affect wildlife and jobs
what happened in 1986 in Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union?
a nuclear meltdown
What are environmental impacts of wind turbines and hydroelectric dams?
wind: killing of wildlife such as birds and bats
hyrdro: blocks fish migration
What are the two types of coal mining?
underground and strip
Which of the following are greenhouse gases?
- carbon dioxide and ozone
- methane, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide
- carbon dioxide and methane
- methane, carbon dioxide, ozone and sulfur dioxide
carbon dioxide and methane
what is ocean acidification and what is causing this to occur?
the pH pf the ocean is dropping because of high concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere and in the ocean
What is a consequence of ocean acidification?
destruction of coral reefs
What is a potential consequence of climate change in Bangladesh?
coastal flooding because of rising sea levels
What is carbon sequestration?
taking CO2 from the atmosphere and storing it
_______ has the highest per capita CO2 emission. _________ has the highest overall CO2 emissions. (countries)
What processes move carbon between biotic and abiotic reservoirs?
respiration and photosynthesis
Cows produce _______ through __________ respiration and _________ through _________ respiration
methane through anaerobic
carbon dioxide through aerobic
What would happen if a significant quantity of carbon dioxide was removed from the Earth's atmosphere?
global temperatures would decrease
during the last 400,000 years, the Earth's climate has:
experienced temperature increases and decreases
What is the major anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide (N2O)?
fertilizer from agriculture
the increase in global temperatures resulting from the greenhouse effect is primarily because of what?
CO2 slowing the escape of heat from earth
What has already occurred in the Ogalla aquifer?
dropping water table
What are consequences of groundwater overdraft?
drying up of wells and saltwater intrusion
why does ice float on liquid water?
hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecules of water in ice father apart than the water molecules of liquid water. this makes the ice less dense than liquid water
what is an aquifer?
rock or soil deposits capable of supplying usable quantities of water
What is the main reason why desalination is not widely used?
it requires large amounts of energy which is costly
Describe the two main ways to desalinate water.
Distillation: boiling water and then condensing the steam
Reverse osmosis: pushing water through a membrane
What is the correct order of the Earth's water storage compartments from smallest to largest?
lakes, groundwater, ice caps and glaciers, oceans
What emits carbon dioxide when producing electricity?
a coal power plant, a natural gas power plant and a biomass power plant
Which of the following statements about water is true?
- water has a low surface tension
- water exists in a liquid form over a very narrow range of temperatures
- water has a high surface tension
- neither polar nor ionic substances can dissolve in water
water has a high surface tension
Draw two water molecules interacting
what is an unconfined aquifer?
an aquifer that is covered by permeable rock and can receive water from the surface
which is an ecosystem service provided by wetlands?
- home to standing water for notable parts of the year
-identified using 3 characteristics: soil, hydrology, plants
-help recharge aquifers
- protected by portions of the clean water act
help recharge aquifers
What is the largest consumptive use of water?
whats the difference between consumptive use and non consumptive uses of water?
consumptive takes water and uses it up
non consumptive take water and puts it back
what is a confined aquifer?
covered by an impermeable layer, only one recharge zone
what is nuclear fission?
breaking things apart
fission fragments are radioactive
name the sources for these pollutants.
1. carbon monoxide
2. sulfur oxide
3. nitrogen dioxide
4. tropospheric ozone
5. particulate matter
2. coal combustion and vehicles
3. coal combustion and vehicles
5. coal combustion, road dust, vehicles
6. leaded gasoline
what is point and non point source pollution?
point: pollution that comes from a specific place
non-point: pollution over a wide spread area, not from a specific location
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