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Sociology Ch. 11
Terms in this set (102)
social phenomenon that consists of beliefs about the sacred; the experiences, practices, and rituals that reinforce those beliefs; and the community that shares similar beliefs and practices
ideas that explain the world and identify what should be sacred or held in awe, that is, a religions ultimate concerns
to durkheim, that which has been defined of ultimate concern
to durkheim, that which has not been defined as sacred, or that which is ordinary and mundane
a set of regularly repeated, prescribed, and traditional behaviors that serve to symbollize some value or belief
rites of passage
rituals that surround major transitions in life, such as birth, puberty, marriage, and death
a period or special time, set apart from ordinary reality
the beliefs practices and symbols that a nation holds sacred
the declining significance of religion
a small group of people who have joined the group consciously and voluntarily to have a personal religous experience
a large group of religously oriented people that one is usually born into rather than joins consciously and voluntarily
a new innovatice small voluntary and exclusice religous traditon that was never associated with any religous organization
new religious movements
movements that attract zealous religious converts, follow charismatic leaders, appeal to an atypical portion of the population, ahve a tendency to differentiate bt "us" and "them" are characterized by distrust of others, and are prone to rapid fundamental changes
religious group not linked to the state that exhibits a general spirit of tolerance and acceptance of other religious bodies
a strongly held belief in the fundamental or foundational precepts of any religion or rejection of the modern secular world
dominant ideology involving the widely shared belief that all people have equal chance of succeeding economically based on their hard work and skills
the process by which the most advantaged individuals are awareded the best opportunities which increases inequality over time
internalized set of preferences and dispositions that are learned through experience and social interactions in specific social contexts
Ideas that explain the world and identify what should be sacred or held in awe and are thus ultimate concerns in that society
Religion separates sacred beliefs from
profane, or the ordinary and mundane.
All religions include an ideology about creation and suffering, as well as
ethnical standards for judging proper behavior
simply believing is not enough, one has to act
In times of crisis, rituals can help people transform tragedy into
opportunity by building a sense of solidarity and reinforcing the authority of the social order.
Sociologists begin the study of religion with the assumption that
if people believe something is real, the consequences of their beliefs are real
The combination of beliefs and rituals forms
the variety of religious experience
Civil religion refers to
beliefs, practices, and symbols that a nation holds sacred, and provides a sense of collective national identity as "we the people
Religious consumers have different tastes, influenced by
class, race, gender, educational attainment, age, region, and other similar factors.
Shopping malls have much in common with
traditional religious centers.
Behavior of sect members tends to
Of the nearly 7 billion people in the world today, about 84% belong to one of the world's major religions
Celebrity converts, religious leaders official visits, we notice things outside our personal norms (new temple).
Attract more attention than converts
Americans may adopt aspects of non-J/C selectively without converting or even relinquishing their existing faith.
28% of American adults have
left the faith in which they were raised in favor of another religion - or no religion at all.
Men are significantly more likely than women to
claim no religious affiliation (20% vs. 13%).
37% are married to a spouse with
a different religious affiliation.
Mormons and Muslims have
the largest families
Jehovah's Witnesses have the lowest
retention rate - only 37% raised as Jehovah's Witnesses still identify themselves as JW
The Midwest most closely resembles
the religious makeup of the overall population
The South, by a wide margin, has the heaviest concentration of
evangelical Protestant churches.
The Northeast has
The Northeast has
The West has the
people, including the
largest proportion of
atheists and agnostics
-is observable, it exists outside any one person, and it exerts a tremendous influence in our world
-ubiquitous - 84% of the 7 billion people on Earth belong to one of the five major religions.
-the human system that reflects our understandings of reality, order, and appropriate ways to engage the sacred
Sociology is interested in the
social behaviors that stem from beliefs. Less interested in the beliefs (theology, doctrine, etc.) themselves.
Sociology focuses on the
collective itself: the nation, the community, the family, the group, the organization, and so on.
Forces external to, and coercive over, the individual
To understand religion in our world,
you have to realize that religious beliefs, practices and experiences are social constructs.
These constructs have profound effects on all aspects of social life
The sociological lens will help us understand
religious diversity and the consequences of beliefs, rituals, and experiences for people, communities, and entire societies
are ultimately insufficient because they are rooted in particular times, places, and cultural contexts.
Contemporary sociology is interested in
what religion does as opposed to explaining what religion is
Religion provides comfort and quells dissatisfaction.
Religion strengthens human community.
Religion assures its followers that there is a larger cosmic order.
links the decline of religion with the rise of some other important qualities of modern societies, especially rationality, bureaucratization, and impersonality
Despite the fact that the United States is among
the most economically, technologically, and
militarily advanced nations on earth, it also has
among the highest reported levels of belief in God
84% of Americans
belong to some religious faith tradition.
70% of Americans
report attending religious services at least once a month.
report attending services at least once a week.
92% of Americans
report belief in God or a higher power.
report praying at least once a day.
report that they believe in life after death
secularization refers to a general decline in religious authority over other social institutions
secularization occurs at the level of religious organizations themselves, e.g. modernizing religious services
can have an impact on the
authority of religious leaders,
doctrines, and traditions,
affecting what individuals
actually believe and what they
do when it comes to their
focus on the personal connections or relationship with the Higher Power.
S and R are not fully independent:
S and R are not fully independent:
Both S and R involve belief in
Higher Power, integrating
beliefs into behavior.
Both are correlated with
frequency of prayer, service
Differences in how individuals define S and R and the labels they choose to identify themselves indicate
multiplicity of perspectives - no one form or combination is all-encompassing
If asked, Catholics would probably say that their Church
goes all the way back to the days when the first Christian communities were founded by disciples of Jesus.
Three creeds form the core of all Roman Catholic belief and doctrine:
the Apostles' Creed,
the Nicene Creed,
and the Athanasian Creed.
are formal statements of belief that people say out loud
Roman Catholics also emphasize seven rituals or sacraments:
baptism (in which babies are sprinkled with water as a sign that they are members of the community)
confirmation (in which teens make a formal statement that they intend to belong to the Church)
Eucharist (or Communion), which is a re-enactment of the Last Supper
reconciliation (in which individuals confess sins or bad things that they have done to a priest and receive forgiveness)
matrimony (we'll assume you know that one)
holy orders (in which men become priests)
anointing of the sick
Mainline Protestant denominations include:
United Methodist Church
the Disciples of Christ
the United Church of Christ
the Anglican or Episcopal
the Evangelical Lutheran
Church of America
the American Baptist Church
the Presbyterian Church
The Protestant Reformation broke
the Roman Church's monopoly on Western Europe
United Methodists started as a movement within the Church of England between
1738 and 1790 under the leadership of John and Charles Wesley.
out of the Church of England
Disciples and UCC churches hold liberal
theological and social attitudes.
The core of Black Protestantism is a set of historic African American religious bodies
founded in the days of slavery
Christian fundamentalism, for example, emerged as a counterforce to secularizing trends, including
modernity, science, and academic scholarship.
Christian fundamentalist churches teach the doctrines of biblical inerrancy and stress
justification by faith, entire sanctification, and the baptism of the Holy Spirit as on the Day of Pentecost.
Islam is the world's
There are five key beliefs and five pillars of ritual behavior in Islam:
There is One God
There are Angels
There have been many prophets in
addition to Mohammed, but only
There will be a final judgment.
It is possible to know God and God's
will in this life
stating that there is no God but Allah and that Mohammed is his prophet
one-month Feast of Ramadan
praying five times a day while facing Mecca
making a pilgrimage to
Mecca at least once in one's
who are heads of local mosques, interpret Sharia law and the teachings of the Qu'ran to the faithful.
There are four major forms of Islam:
Shi'ism, Sunnism, Sufism, and the Nation of Islam
Hindu belief and practice originated
in India around 1500 B.C.E
Although Christians often assume that Hindus worship many gods and goddesses, they are actually
all forms of one God, called Brahman, the original spirit and creative force of the universe
Hindus see the One reflected in a trinity of Gods:
Brahma, the creator of the universe; Vishnu, its maintainer; and Shiva, the destroyer who brings new life
Hindu sacred texts include
the Vedas, but their role is different from that of the Bible for Christians or the Qur'an for Muslims.
Dharma is a core Hindu belief that
captures the idea of duty and moral righteousness in behavior.
Karma are the actions that
one takes to achieve dharma
Buddhism originated after
the sixth century B.C.E
Over time, two main traditions arose within Buddhism:
Theravada and Mahayana
is an elite form of Buddhism that is linked to the specialized life and religious devotions of monks who live together in communities called sanghas
embodies a more complex understanding of the relationship between the spiritual and material worlds
Judaism gave birth to Christianity, but
it takes a very different approach in its beliefs and practices
Apart from a belief in the oneness of God, there is no
unifying creed among Jews
Judaism emphasizes the
observance of rituals and ethical practices.
Contemporary Judaism is based on
the Torah, but generally does not follow all the ritual practices, including animal sacrifice, that it mandates.
Hasidic and Orthodox Jews
are the most conservative
follows the rules of the Torah and Talmud but allows for reinterpretation of ancient Jewish teaching in light of contemporary experience
holds that the rules in the Torah related to social justice and peace are more important than the observance of rituals and dietary laws
hold to the importance of Jewish heritage while seeking new ways to experience the sacred in the modern world.
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