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Trench Warfare

Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.

Congress of Berlin

(1878) Assembly of representatives from Germany, Russia, Hungary, Britain, France, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire. Meeting was to reorganize the countries of the Balkans - led to greater nationalism.

Schlieffen Plan

Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schlieffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.

western front

In WWI, the region of Northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other.


The "majority" - Communist party led by Lenin. Although they were not the majority and actually received a terrible percentage of the Russian Congress's vote, Lenin kept the name to create attraction and support. After the Russian Congress received the low voting, the Bolsheviks and Lenin took over and simply disregarded the Russian Congress from there on out.

principle of national self-determination

each nationality should have its own nation-state

First Balkan War

1912 -Serbia joined Greece and Bulgaria to attack the Ottoman Empire and then quarreled with Bulgaria over the spoils of victory--a dispute that led in 1913 to the Second Balkan War

Reinsurance Treaty

agreement between Germany and Russia that stipulated that each power would maintain neutrality should the other find itself at war.

Algeciras Conference

International conference called to deal with the Moroccan question. French get Morocco, Germany gets nothing, isolated. Result is U.S, Britain, France, Russia see Germany as a threat.

Anglo-French Entente

Britain allied with Japan, then turned to France. Goal was to further alienate Germany

"Third Balkan War"

leaders of Austro-Hungary conlcuded that Serbia needed to be punished once and for all after assasinating Ferdinand and presented Serbia with an unconditional ultimatum where they had 48 to agree on the demands for ceding Serbia; Serbia replied moderately/evasively to Austria mobilized and declared war on Serbia

Auxiliary Service Law

A German law requiring all males between the ages of seventeen and sixty to work only at jobs considered critical to the war effort.

Petrograd Soviet

Modeled on the revolutionary soviets of 1905, the _________ was a huge, fluctuating mass meeting of two thousand to three thousand workers, soldiers, and socialist intellectuals. Seeing itself as a true grassroots revolutionary democracy, this counter- or half-government suspiciously watched the provisional government and issued its own radical orders, further weakening the provisional government.

Petrograd bread riots

On March 8, International Women's day, women textile workers poured into the streets shouting "Bread!" Other Petrograd workers quickly joined and within two days over 200,000 strikers brought everyday life to a standstill. After being informed of the mounting chaos in the capital, Nicholas II telegraphed back that order should be restored. The city's military commander ordered police and troops to disperse demonstrators, shooting at them if necessary. But after some shooting, the key turning point occurred. Soldiers in one regiment after another refused to simply with orders and instead joined the demonstrators. After realizing he had lost control of Petrograd and the support of key military and political leaders, Nicholas II abdicated the throne on March 15.

Congress of the Soviets

The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, several other Soviet republics from 1917 to 1936 and the legislative branch of the USSR until 1936

Kiel mutiny

The Kiel mutiny was a major mutiny by sailors of the German High Seas Fleet on 29 October 1918. The mutiny triggered the German revolution which was to sweep aside the monarchy within a few days. It ultimately led to the end of the First World War and to the establishment of the Weimar Republic.

Army Order No. 1

a radical order of the Petrograd soviet that stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers.

Constituent Assembly

a freely elected assembly promised by the Bolsheviks, but permanently disbanded after one day(January 18,1918) under Lenins orders after the Bolsheviks won less than one fourth of the elected delegates.

White opposition

The officers of the old army took the lead in organizing the so-called White opposition to the Bolsheviks in southern Russia, Ukraine, Siberia and west of Petrograd. The whites came from many social groups and were united only by their hatred of the Bolsheviks-the reds. It caused the Russian civil war. (914)

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.

Battle of the Marne

A major French victory against the invading German army at the start of WWI. In reality lost Germany the war.

Battles of the Somme and Verdun

In the Battle of Somme in the summer of 1916, the British and French lost 600,000 soldiers for 125 square miles while the Germans lost 500,000 men. That same year, the unsuccessful German campaign against Verdun cost 700,000 lives on both sides. (899)

Battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes

Russia was pushing into eastern Germany, but these battles led to German victories. Russia was very badly damaged by the Germans in the Battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes under Generals Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff in August and September 1914. Russia never threatened Germany again. (909)

Versailles Treaty

The compromise after WW1, settled land and freedom disputes. Germany had to take full blame for the war in order for the treaty to pass, among other things. The US Senate rejected it.

Three Emperors League

created in 1873- linked the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Russia in an alliance against radical movements

Boer War

Lasting from 1899 to 1902, Dutch colonists and the British competed for control of territory in South Africa.

Triple Alliance

Alliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungry

Triple Entente

An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.

Archduke Francis Ferdinand

heir to the throne of Austria Hungary; assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a bosnian serb.; sparked WWI

Black Hand

the Serbian terrorist group that planned to assassinate Franz Ferdinand

Lawrence of Arabia

British military officer who incited the Arabs in Arabia to revolt against their Turkish lords

War Raw Materials Board

Masterminded by Walter Rathenau, this was set up by the German government to ration and distribute raw materials.

Georges Clemenceau

He was the French representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.

Nicholas II

Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.


Last Tsarist of Russia, had a son who was a hemophiliac, and was put under the influence of Rasputin, where he exploited her. Ended up causing the collapse of the Tsars


Russian monk who had influenced the Czar's government policies; he had mystical powers.

Provisional Government

The government established in 1917 which replaced Nicholas II when he abdicated. The only mistake of this government was not getting Russia out of the brutal World War I.

Alexander Kerensky

An agrarian socialist who became prime minister. He refused to confiscate land holdings and felt that continuation of war was most important.

Vladimir Lenin

Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)


The party which opposed to the Bolsheviks. Started in 1903 by Martov, after dispute with Lenin. THE Mensheviks wanted a democratic party with mass membership.

Lavr Kornilov

Russian army commander; Sent troops upon St Petersburg against gov't orders; Kerensky seeks help from Bolshevik's to fight off Russian army

Leon Trotsky

Supporter of Lenin who helped in the takeover of Petrograd and the Bolshevik revolution

war communism

in World War I Russia, government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under Communist control

German Revolution

The German Revolution of November 1918 resembled the Russian Revolution of March 1917; however the moderate socialists and their liberal allies won in the German Revolution, and the Lenin-like radical revolutionaries in the councils lost.

League of Nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations

Lloyd George

the prime minister of Great Britain; platform was to make the Germans pay for WWI (at the Paris Peace Conference)

Woodrow Wilson

After World War I, this United States president sought to reduce the risk of war by writing the Fourteen Points that influenced the creation of the League of Nations.

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