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disease-producing microbes (bacteria & viruses)


ability to ward off damage or disease through defenses


Vulnerability or lack of resistance to damage or disease

Innate (nonspecific) immunity

defenses present at birth

Adaptive (specific) immunity

develops in response to contact w/ specific invader

Functions of Lymphatic System

1. drain excess interstitial fluid, 2. transport dietary lipids, 3. carry our immune responses

Lymphatic System consists of

lymph, lymphatic vessels, number of structures & organs, red bone marrow

Red bone marrow

stem cells develop into various types of blood cells, including lymphocytes

Lymph nodes

neck, armpits, groin

Lymphatic capillaries

begin as tiny vessels, located in spaces between cells

Capillaries unique because

vessel's unique one-way structure permitting interstitial fluid to flow into them

Lymph trunks & ducts

formed by lymphatic vessels

Skeletal muscle pump

"milking action" of skeletal muscle contractions

Respiratory pump

lymph flow is also maintained by pressure changes occurring during inhalation, trunks drain lymph

Primary lymphatic organs

red bone marrow and thymus

Secondary lymphatic organs

lymph nodes, spleen, lymphatic nodules


T cells & scattered dendritic cells, epithelial cells, & macrophages

Lymph nodes

have capsule of dense c-tissue extending into node, functions as filter

Lymph nodes function as

a type of filter


bilobed, in mediastium, functional until puberty

Thymus has what cells

T cells, dendritic cells, epithelial cells, & macrophages

Number of lymph nodes


Lymph nodes located along

lymphatic vessels

L nodes consist of

T cells, B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, & plasma cells

Lymph's way of travel

lymph enters afferent lymphatic vessels & drains through efferent lymphatic vessels

Lymph nodes function as

a filter


largest single mass of lymphatic tissue

Location of spleen

between stomach and diaphragm

2 types of spleen tissues

White pulp, red pulp

White pulp

lymphocytes & macrophages, location of immune response

Red pulp

RBC, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, & granulocytes

1 function related to blood cells

macrophages remove word out/defective blood cells & platelets

2nd function related to blood cells

storage of platelets, up to one-thir of body's supply

3rd function related to blood cells

production of blood cells (hemopoiesis) during fetal life

Lymphatic nodules

participate in immune response, small & solitary, some occur in large aggregates (tonsils)

Lymphatic nodules also called

Mucosa-Associated Lymphatic Tissue (MALT) because plentiful in mucus membranes

Innate immunity

acts against microbes in same way

First Line of Defense

skin & mucus membranes

First Line of Defense helps

physical & chemical barriers discouraging foreign substances from penetrating body

1st Line of Defense also helps

flow of urine & vaginal secretions; defecation & vomiting

Second Line of Defense

internal defenses antimicrobial proteins discourage microbial growth

Interferons (2nd defense)

proteins produced by cells infected w/ viruses

Complement System (2nd defense)

enhance certain immune, allergic, & inflammatory reactions

Make up of complement system

phagocytes & natural killer cells -> inflammation


Chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing


attachment of phagocyte to microbe/foreign material


plasma membrane of phagocyte extends projections (pseudopods) engulfing microbe, surrounding w/ phagosome

Phagocyte's projections called



phagosome fuses w/ lysosomes to form phagolysosome & lysosomal enzymes breakdown ingested cell


residual bodies kill materials that can't be digested further

Natural Killer Cells

inject cells with perforin


causes perforations in plasma membrane & cytolysis movement of extracellular fluid to rush into cell


penetrations, or holes

Perforin releases

granzymes = cell undergoes apoptosis


programmed cell death

NK cells doesn't kill microbe but

releases it from cell so phagocytes destroy microbe

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