Sociology Exam 3: Good Luck :)
Terms in this set (83)
pervasive process characterizing modern society in which traditional methods and standards of social organization based on tradition, belief, and even magic, are replaced with new methods and standards of social organization based on objectively calculable scientific criteria.
increased interaction among people, countries, and companies around the world uniting them into a single worldwide political and economic system of interrelationships.
commercial organizations whose operations span international boundaries. They sell and produce goods and services in different countries.
they bring jobs to developing countries, facilitate ideas and technology around world.
they can exploit workers and export jobs to countries with cheap labor
is based on private ownership of wealth, competition, profit, and noninterference by the government in which workers produce goods or services in exchange for wages.
systems in which the means of production, along with most natural resources, are publicly or collectively owned rather than privately owned.
occurs when the arguer makes it appear there are only two choices, then eliminates one, making it appear the other must be selected.
occurs when someone makes assumptions or generalizations about an entire category of cases based on a very few cases that are most likely too few or biased
Post Hoc Argument
is an argument that because Y follows X, Y must have been cause by X.
argument asserts that if something is done it will result in a series of increasingly dire consequences. Ex: start with a soft drug like weed...leads to hard drug like heroin.
Affirming the consequent
reasoning that argues that because the consequent of the statement is true, the antecedent must be true as well. Ex: If someone is brilliant they passed the test, Joe passed so he must be brilliant. He may have cheated or studied really hard.
Occurs when two things are argued to be similar and hence a property of one is also a property of the other.
Ad hominem argument
argument "against the person". William argues that charter schools are better then public schools, but William is a republican so we shouldn't believe him.
argument suggests something must be true because most people believe it.
acknowledge your own position, clearly state it, compare position to others views, justify and defend position
requires self-reflection and self-criticism, need to recognize we could be wrong and examine our own assumptions. Am I biased?
thinking that is open to possibilities, seeks out info, willing to trust logic and empirical data. Willingness to be proven wrong. Not everything is black or white
Implicit issues need to be made explicit, sub-issues need to be identified
when person puts thoughts in context, examines the implications, conclusions, and consequences of their position, and considers those as they choose the position they wish to defend.
ability to reason at many different levels of abstraction, and to be able to generalize from the particular to the abstract.
when it uses relevant evidence, rigorous methods.
exercise of logical rational skills, analytic skills, the ability to think clearly and effectively.
the conclusion one participant argues is true
alternative claim that often opposes the final claim
statements supporting a claim or counterclaim. Ex: Evidence, pseudo evidence, opinion
statements challenging a claim or arguments in support of a claim
policies that exploit a minority group by excluding it from equal participation in society. Ex: Slavery
separation of different categories of people
when a minority group is absorbed into dominant culture
Ethnic pluralism or multiculturalism
occurs when ethnic and racial groups coexist equally while preserving their distinctive identities.
refers to category of people who share inherited physical characteristics that distinguish them from others
refers to people who are perceived to belong to the same broad category loosely based on number of visible shared physical characteristics such as skin color or hair
Ethnicity or ethnic group
is a category of people defined on the basis of their cultural characteristics and common cultural heritage
subordinate group that occupies an inferior position of prestige, wealth and power
What were the points made in the video of the White and Black men in St. Louis?
There was racism. The car dealer told the Black man a higher down payment, and the renter lied and told him he had already found a tenant for his apartment
What are the differences in important indices among racial and ethnic groups?
Median Income, Percent below poverty level, unemployment rate, college graduates
an ideology or rationale used to justify prejudice and discrimination toward members of another race based on a belief in the inherent superiority of one racial group and the inherent inferiority of others
discrimination that stems from prejudicial attitudes; that is, behaviors taken with the intent to discriminate.
organizational practices and societal trends that exclude minorities from economic opportunity, power, and prestige.
formal separation of different categories of people.
How do different groups of people feel about the role of the wife in the home?
Males/Lower class- Agree that wife should stay in the home and man is breadwinner.
Females/upper class- disagree race/ethnic group does not change opinion gender/social standing does
is the social status associated with a persons sex.
biological distinction between males and females. Characteristics are genitalia and ability to bear children.
persons sexual orientation, sexual behavior and attitudes about sexual behavior.
How have life expectancies for men, women, whites, and blacks changed during the 20th century?
Life expectancy for all of those groups have increased.
What do the statistics about gender and education tell us?
Historically women are more likely to be illiterate than men. In developing countries, two-thirds of the women over 25 have never been to school, compared to one-half of men. In the United States today more women graduate from college than men
examined rape cases in large Midwestern city. He assessed the affects of race on criminal justice outcomes, results showed that blacks were treated more severly
argues that people have an "inner control system" which is an individuals capacity to resist temptation, found that students receiving less supervision from mothers and who had less intimate conversations with fathers were more likely to commit deviant acts.
The relative frequency of various kinds of crime
Crimes against persons- 11.69%
Crimes against property- 88.31%
Statistics related to victimization
Urban areas are more susceptible than rural areas, males are more likely to be victims to violent crimes, women are more likely to be victimized by someone they know rather than a stranger, The higher the social class, the lower the victimization rate, Minorities are more victimized than whites
People between 13-34 account for 2/3 of all arrests, this mirrors victimization rates
In the United States your chances of being a victim of a crime are affected dramatically by your gender, race and ethnicity, social class, size of community, and age
8 crimes FBI uses to summarize crime rates
Crimes against person
aggravated assault, robbery, rape
Crimes against property
stealing or damaging, theft, arson
serious crime, year or more imprisonment
less serious, less than a year in prison
belief that genetic predisposition leads to crime, belief that personality type makes people more likely to deviate
views deviance and crime as the measure of a society. Help sustain a sense of morality by reminding us what is good and bad.
Structural Strain/Anomie View
argues that deviance occurs when people reject cultural goals and don't believe they can achieve them in a socially
Control Theory View
argues everyone is tempted by opportunities of deviant behavior, but people are less likely to deviate when their bonds to society are strong.
person is viewed as somehow socially unacceptable or disgraced. Ex: blindness, race, AIDs
a view of what is morally correct that they recognize is limited to people in that situation and is widely rejected by the larger society
the exclusion or banning of a person from the normal activities of a group
Issues of how people perceive inequality and social class in the U.S.
1.General tendency of people in the U.S. to underestimate the amount of inequality in our society.
2.Proletariat would display false consciousness by being unaware of the severe class differences
Characteristics of the poor
Children, Women and single heads of households, racial or ethnic minorities, inner-city residents or residents of poor rural counties
social status is determined completely by birthright. Ex: India
person's family ties are primarily determinant of their social standing. Ex: Somalia and Iraq
nobility, church, and peasants. Eldest sons inherit all the wealth. Ex: feudal Europe and Asian nations.
Marx (Class conflict)
argued the proletariat (workers who sell their productive labor for wages) were exploited by the capitalists (owners of the means of production)
He predicted that works would eventually overthrow capatilists
Eric Wright Revision vs. Marx
He argued that changing conditions made it necessary to modify Marx's analysis to include four classes: Capitalist (own large businesses employing many workers, Petty bourgeoisie (own small businesses), Managers (who sell their own labor but exercise authority over other employess, such as dean in a college), workers (who sell their labor)
Max Weber argued there are 3 important dimensions to stratification
1. Social class- class could be measured by combination of wealth and income
2. Status- respect and admiration that comes with occupation
3. Power- ability to influence or control others, hardest to gain
rich countries help poor ones, dependency theory
progress could be made in poor countries through diffusion of technological innovations
Statistics on inequality from the lecture and the New York Times web site
Average income for top .1 percent rose 250%
How unevenly distributed are various things, like income, net financial assets, wealth, etc?
Inequality is more pronounced in wealth than in income, with wealth much more concentrated in the upper extremes of the population
theories that argue rich industrialized countries keep poor countries underdeveloped and dependent on them to serve their own needs
Divides countries into peripheral countries (most dependent countries)
Low levels of industrialization. Ex- third world countries
Core countries (dominant countries)
High levels of industrialization. Ex: U.S, Germany, Japan
Semi-peripheral countries (countries between the core countries and peripheral countries)
Intermediate levels of industrialization. Ex- Brazil, Greece, and spain
How important is race in the view of survey respondents?
Not important at all- 14.3%
Not very important- 34.7%
Fairly important- 31.3%
Very important- 15.9%
29% of blacks, 16% of Hispanics, and 12% of whites agreed that it is very important to be the right race to get ahead.
What kinds of deaths occur on the job and in various kinds of jobs?
For farmers, miners, and construction workers the greatest risk is traumatic injuries such as vehicle accidents, burns, falls, and accidents with machinery. For police officers a greater risk comes from violent acts by others. Gas station attendants and convenience store clerks are often targets of armed robberies and crime-related acts of violence.
What is the changing role of unions and professions in the U.S. and around the world?
Labor unions are not only losing members, but
1. Labor unions are not only losing members, but have been forced to accept wage reductions and loss of benefits to retain jobs. 2. Reasons for decline of labor unions in U.S.: strong management opposition to labor unions, 1980s union plants closed, technological change
How is the economy changing and what are some of its important components, such as the primary and secondary labor market, sectors, the underground economy, etc.?
Economis sector is a large segment of the economy such as the primary sector (agricultural, preindustrial, labor intensive), secondary (manufacturing, industrial, capital intensive), or tertiary (service, post industrial, knowledge intensive) sector.
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