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33 terms

Social Psych

Test 2
STUDY
PLAY
Categorization
The process by which we group things or people
Use of Social Categorization
Occurs when people are perceived as members of a social group rather than unique individuals
*think groups rather than individuals
Use of Social Categorization
Saves effort of having to deal with every unique aspect of another person
Use of Social Categorization
Once we categorize an individual we become more aware of those characteristics that put them in that group.
* More aware of charateristics of group
Social Groups
Two or more people who share some common charateristics that are socially meaningful for themselves or for others
Stereotypes
A cognitive representation or impression of a social group that people form
Prejudice
A positive or negative evaluation of a social group and its members
* its situational
Prejudice Examples
Teenagers -- immature, rude
Cyclist -- annoying in the way
Drivers -- lazy
Discrimination
Any positive or negative behavior that is directed towards a social group and its members
Cognitive Roots: Sterotyping
"Pictures in the head"
Simplified mental images of what groups look like and what they do
Stereotypes include
physical appearance
Are stereotypes always negative?
No, they don't have to be negative
Positive Stereotypes
Grandma's are kind
Asians are smart
Blacks are musically talented
What do stereotypes do no matter good or bad?
They imply that everyone in the group is the same
What do positive stereotypes do?
They may set unrealistic standards for an individual of a specific group.
Why do we need stereotypes?
A need for knowledge and understanding
We have a need to know about the world around us. There is just too much info, therefore we need a cognitive representation
Social Learning theory
People can learn by observing the behaviors of others and the outcomes of those behaviors
Social Communication
When people form impressions of a group by being told about them secondhand
Stereotypes Accurate?
No stereotype applies to every member of a group
Maintaining stereotypes
"Ilusory correlations"
When people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an associations between social traits than they have actually seen
Memory
We remember infrequent things because they stand out. Remember negative impressions over positive
We attend to what is different
Some members of a group may be more extreme than others.
Some information attracts more attention even if we have more information that contradicts the stereotypes
Social Role and Correspondence Biases
If we see an individual filling a specific socail role and onlt in that social role we assume that is indicative of who they are
Social Identity
Those aspects of the self - concept that derive from an individual's knowledge and feelings about the group membership he or she shares with other's
Why people want to belong to a group?
presence of an out- group member
being a minority
self esteem
Social Change
The strategy of improving the overall societal situation of a stigmatized group
Recategorization
redefining the in group
ex: Arian nation (refining boundaries bringing in new group)
Out group homogeneity effect
the tendency to see the out- group as relatively more homogenous and less diverse than in in-group
EX: platz and Hosh 1988
- store clerks memory of customers
Stereotypes threat
the fear of confirming others negative stereotypes of your group
monority stress
worrying about creating a positive outlook for your group
can we undo stereotypes
its hard because of accessibility of negative stereotypes
Non prejuiced people do not get rid of their negative stereotypes
they simply do not allow them to guide their behavior
They only way we can unlearn prejudice is...
superordinate goals. shared goals that can be attained only if groups work together