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Test 2


The process by which we group things or people

Use of Social Categorization

Occurs when people are perceived as members of a social group rather than unique individuals
*think groups rather than individuals

Use of Social Categorization

Saves effort of having to deal with every unique aspect of another person

Use of Social Categorization

Once we categorize an individual we become more aware of those characteristics that put them in that group.
* More aware of charateristics of group

Social Groups

Two or more people who share some common charateristics that are socially meaningful for themselves or for others


A cognitive representation or impression of a social group that people form


A positive or negative evaluation of a social group and its members
* its situational

Prejudice Examples

Teenagers -- immature, rude
Cyclist -- annoying in the way
Drivers -- lazy


Any positive or negative behavior that is directed towards a social group and its members

Cognitive Roots: Sterotyping
"Pictures in the head"

Simplified mental images of what groups look like and what they do

Stereotypes include

physical appearance

Are stereotypes always negative?

No, they don't have to be negative

Positive Stereotypes

Grandma's are kind
Asians are smart
Blacks are musically talented

What do stereotypes do no matter good or bad?

They imply that everyone in the group is the same

What do positive stereotypes do?

They may set unrealistic standards for an individual of a specific group.

Why do we need stereotypes?

A need for knowledge and understanding
We have a need to know about the world around us. There is just too much info, therefore we need a cognitive representation

Social Learning theory

People can learn by observing the behaviors of others and the outcomes of those behaviors

Social Communication

When people form impressions of a group by being told about them secondhand

Stereotypes Accurate?

No stereotype applies to every member of a group

Maintaining stereotypes
"Ilusory correlations"

When people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an associations between social traits than they have actually seen


We remember infrequent things because they stand out. Remember negative impressions over positive

We attend to what is different

Some members of a group may be more extreme than others.
Some information attracts more attention even if we have more information that contradicts the stereotypes

Social Role and Correspondence Biases

If we see an individual filling a specific socail role and onlt in that social role we assume that is indicative of who they are

Social Identity

Those aspects of the self - concept that derive from an individual's knowledge and feelings about the group membership he or she shares with other's

Why people want to belong to a group?

presence of an out- group member
being a minority
self esteem

Social Change

The strategy of improving the overall societal situation of a stigmatized group


redefining the in group
ex: Arian nation (refining boundaries bringing in new group)

Out group homogeneity effect

the tendency to see the out- group as relatively more homogenous and less diverse than in in-group
EX: platz and Hosh 1988
- store clerks memory of customers

Stereotypes threat

the fear of confirming others negative stereotypes of your group

monority stress

worrying about creating a positive outlook for your group

can we undo stereotypes

its hard because of accessibility of negative stereotypes

Non prejuiced people do not get rid of their negative stereotypes

they simply do not allow them to guide their behavior

They only way we can unlearn prejudice is...

superordinate goals. shared goals that can be attained only if groups work together

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