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Social Studies: Chapter 8 / Section 3
Terms in this set (67)
The emperor ruled Japan, but the truth is that these families often really held the power.
Wealthy noble families: they battled one another to gain power.
Japan remained strong and united until this regent died.
After Prince Shotoku's death, the emperors of Japan became these:
figureheads-someone who appeared to have power, but really did not
After Shotoku's death, because the emperor was just a figurehead. Identify what clan really ruled Japan?
The Fujiwara clan or family - who remained in power for 300 years
What caused the Fujwara's central government to decline?
They ran out of money.
How dod the Fujwara's central government run out of money?
They lost authority or control over the larger landholders.
What was the name of these large land holders?
The daimyo - who were the large estate owners
Name two ways that the daimyo negatively effected the Fujwara's central government
1) paid no taxes to the government;
2) had private samurai armies
Class of warriors in feudal Japan who pledged loyalty to a noble in return for land.
Lords and Nobles: Daimyo were a key part to Japanese feudalism. Their land needed to be protected against invasions from other daimyos, so, they hired samurais and rewarded them with small pieces of land.
government in which land was exchanged for military service and obligations. At that time, LAND equaled MONEY
What did the daimyo families fight over:
wealth and power
Name two powerful daimyo families that had large samurai families
Taira and the Minamonto
The more the daimyo's power increased, the more this was weakened. What is it... what got weaker.
The central government
As the daimyo's power increased, this also increased.
What was it?
lawlessness (crime) / Civil War
Because of the weak central government and the lawlessness, this group of people wanted protection.
small land owners
To get protection and aid, the small landowners made a deal or pledge with this group of people.
a lord or nobles which is a person that controlled large areas of land.
People (the small landowners) who received land and protection from the lord in return for loyalty was called this.
vassal who worked for the lords and nobles, essentially becoming their slaves.
What exactly is a vassal?
A person who promised to support a lord/noble in exchange for land and protection
The lord-vassal system increased the power of these people.
The large land owners.
The lord-vassal system marked the start of this type of government in Japan.
Feudalism - The class system started it
While nobles (rich people from powerful families/clans fought among themselves, this person remained in office as head of the government
emperor (but he was just a figurehead)
The rise of Japan's military society happened when this person took control of the country, but allowed the emperor to stay in charge only as a figurehead
He was the most important daimyo, or large landholder, and the actual ruler of Japan
The shogun ruled on this person's behalf:
Regarding a shogun or military governor: who did he look out for first: his own interest or the emperor
A shogun was more concerned with his own interest
Name the first shogun / otherwise known as the military governor
What were Yoritomo's responsibilities: name two
1) lead the army
2) ruled the country
What was the name of the fearsome warriors of Japan
Who did the samurai fight for
the lords/nobles even if it meant they couldn't protect their own family
Why would the samurai put their own family at risk in order to protect the lord?
Because dying an honorable death was more important to them than a long life
What did the samurai wives learn to do in order to protect themselves while their husbands were away?
They learned to handle weapons to protect the family from bandits
During the feudal era of Japan, what status did women have?
They had a high status: they could inherit land and even become a samurai.
What was bushido?
It was the samurai warrior code.
What three things did the bushido (the samurai warrior code) call for.
The bushido code was similar to this code.
The chivalry code of the knights in medieval Europe
Samurai pledged to show respect for these:
Samurai pledged generosity towards these people:
This religion was important to the Samurai
The Japanese society pyramid / class system had this many levels:
5: People were born into a level and could never leave it. When their children were born they were considered to be within the same level.
At the bottom, or fifth level, of the Japanese society pyramid were these people:
merchants-but they produced no goods that contributed to society
Above the bottom level was the fourth level. This group of people were considered to be more valued than the merchants.
peasants and artisans: who were the workers and Japan's largest class
In the middle of the pyramid, on the third level was this group of people.
The Samurai, or Japan's warriors
Near the top of the pyramid, on the second level was this person.
The Shogun-who was the most important daimyo or large land owner and the actual ruler of Japan
At the top of the pyramid was this person:
the emperor - who actually had very little power
Review question of the pyramid: what is the name for the most important daimyo who was the actual ruler of Japan?
How did powerful military leaders help to unify Japan?
Their succession of three strong military leaders ended the fighting between rival daimyo.
Name the three powerful military leaders who unified Japan.
1) Oda Nobunaga
2) Toyotomi Hideyoshi
3) Tokugawa Ieyasu
This was the first shogun, or powerful military leaders who reunited Japan.
1) Oda Nobunaga
What was Oda Nobunaga main accomplishment:
1) Ended Civil wars because he recognized the importance of guns and his warriors were the first to use the guns in battle and defeat armies that were many times larger.
These two things helped Oda Nobunaga gain control over half of Japan before his death.
Where did Oda Nobunaga get guns
This military leader replaced Oda Nobunaga after his death.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi- who used to be Nobunaga's general.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi used these two things to gain control over all of Japan
Describe Toyotomi's three phases of life
He was born a peasant, then a common soldier, then a general, (he never became a shogun)
After Toyotomi Hideyoshi's death, the generals under him started to do this.
fight wars amongst themselves to gain control of land
This person was the last of the three powerful rulers who helped unite Japan. He was named the shogun.
Tokungawa Ieyasu - who use to be one of Toyotomi's Hideyoshi's generals - he became a shogun
Tokugawa Ieyasu founded one of these in Japan
a dynasty called the Tokugawa Shogunate
Tokgawa Ieyasu changed Japan's capital to this city.
Edo, which is now called Tokyo
Under Tokgawa Ieyasu's leadership, missionaries and traders from this continent entered Japan.
Tokgawa Ieyasu and his successors didn't like the European's _____________ and ______________, so they drove them out of Japan.
changes / influences (ideas)
Tokgawa Ieyasu and his successors banned this:
Tokgawa Ieyasu and his successors executed these people.
Tokgawa Ieyasu and his successors forbade the Japanese to do these two things.
Leave Japan and trade with foreign countries
Under Tokgawa Ieyasu and his successors rule, Japan went into a period of this.
What does isolation mean
separation from the world.
What famous Japanese regent would have been totally against isolation
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