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Bio 111 chapter 19 hw
Terms in this set (51)
Programmed cell death can be an aspect of normal development. Check all of the conditions that are related to programmed cell death during development.
Humans and C. elegans have similar genes that are involved in apoptosis.
The process of apoptosis is highly conserved in animal evolution.
If the Apaf1 gene in humans is mutated, apoptosis in inhibited.
In general, the blastomeres of this region form the ectodermal tissues.
Which mechanism of morphogenesis occurs only in animals and not plants?
What can be said about animal and vegetal poles?
When animal pole cells are cultured with vegetal pole cells, some of the animal pole cells become mesoderm.
Normally, how many eggs does the human female produce each month?
What is a blastocyst?
A mass of cells that results after several days of cell division of a fertilized egg.
After the eggs are fertilized and have begun successfully growing and dividing, how are they implanted into the mother?
They are guided onto the lining of her uterus by a catheter.
Babies produced by in vitro fertilization are often referred to as "test-tube babies." What is the most likely reason for this term?
The babies result from fertilization that occurred in a lab instead of inside the mother.
What is the most likely reason for inserting multiple embryos into the mother?
Doing so increases the chances that at least one embryo will successfully implant.
After the doctor injects the egg with a sperm, what is the ploidy of the resulting cell?
Which process of morphogenesis refers to the directed movement of a cell from one location to another?
Cells that die of injury usually swell and then burst. Their contents are released into the extracellular fluid. This form of cell death is referred to as
In a 32-cell stage tunicate embryo, if the vegetal marginal cells lack a functional FGF receptor, the development of which structures would be affected?
the notochord and mesenchyme
What can be said about the zygote of an animal embryo as it undergoes many cell divisions during the process of cleavage?
After many cell divisions, the embryo will be about the same size as the zygote.
The term neoplasia refers to cell accumulation. Neoplasia can be caused by
A key difference between plant and animal development is
plants have modular development through tissues called meristems.
These are cell adhesion proteins that some cells use in the process of differentiation during development.
Scientists attempted for many years to conduct nuclear transplants but failed. However, geneticists had success in cloning a sheep. They were successful because they
picked a cell very early in development.
Check all of the properties of homeotic genes.
Homeotic genes specify the identity of segments in the Drosophila body.
Mutations in homeotic genes result in the transformation of one body part into another.
Homeotic genes are found in complexes in both Drosophila and humans.
The expression of homeotic genes along the body mirrors the order of the genes in the chromosome.
A zygote is a fertilized egg formed by an egg and a sperm. The zygote undergoes many mitotic events as it develops into a solid ball of cells (ie, blastomeres) called a blastula. What changes occur in this early cleavage?
During the initial stages of cleavage, there is a tremendous increase in the number of cells coupled with a decrease in the size of the cells composing the developing organism.
Signal molecules that determine relative positions during development are known as
In Drosophila, the cells created by cleavage contain different developmental signals from the egg called cytoplasmic
What was the most significant research finding that resulted from the successful cloning of Dolly?
The nucleus of a fully-differentiated cell can be reprogrammed to be totipotent.
What type of body cells does Dr. Gerhardt grow from the stem cells in the video?
Which of the following would contain the highest percentage of stem cells?
a developing embryo
Stem cells are undifferentiated. Which of the following provides the best description of what it means when a group of stem cells differentiates?
They develop into specific body cells.
What is a potential therapy that stem cells could be used to develop?
Stem cells can be used to treat patients with kidney disease, who require a kidney transplant.
Which of the following statements below is BEST evidenced by the information in the video?
Dr. Gerhardt was able to grow heart tissue that was capable of beating.
In Drosophila, the different segmental fates of each neuroblast (cells that give rise to neurons) are determined by
The Drosophila homeotic genes typically contain the homeobox. The homeobox is a sequence of 180 nucleotides. The number of amino acids coded for by this sequence is
Egg cells were combined with this cell type to form the cloned sheep named Dolly.
A fertilized egg is called a
Check all of the features of C. elegans that make it a great model system to study developmental processes.
C. elegans is small and fast growing
a complete lineage map exists
the organism is transparent
C. elegans is useful in experimental genetics
Cells that are programmed to die, shrivel and shrink in a process called
How did Briggs and King move the nuclei between cells?
with a glass pipet
Development, whether in plants or animals, is a continuum but the process is often examined as four subprocesses. Match the description with the correct subprocess.
a. Cell death, cell division, and differentiation are all aspects of this process which establishes body form. (Morphogenesis)
b. Increasing the number of cells without increasing size. (Cell Division)
c. Cell specialization through selective gene expression. (Differentiation)
d. Orientation of cells by the detection of positional information. (Pattern Formation)
Is it theoretically possible to generate an entire animal from a somatic (body) nucleus?
Yes, because a somatic nucleus contains all the genetic information present in the zygote
A mutation in a Hox gene typically results in
development of normal body parts in abnormal places.
There are cases, particularly in fruit flies, in which a perfectly normal body part grows in an area where it should not grow. Extra pairs of wings and legs growing in the antennae location are some examples. How can this phenomenon be explained?
These mutations occur as a result of homeotic gene mutations.
In frogs, it was shown that intestinal cells from tadpoles can be used to generate zygotes that grew into normal adults. This demonstrated that
the nuclei of the intestinal cells could be reprogrammed.
A muscle precursor cell would be considered to be
The main difference between therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning is that
in therapeutic cloning, embryonic stem cells are extracted from the blastocyst, while in reproductive cloning, the blastocyst is kept intact and implanted into a surrogate mother.
One piece of evidence suggesting that HOM and Hox genes are homologous is
their linear order of organization on chromosomes is the same in mouse and Drosophila.
Describe the apoptotic pathway in mammalian cells.
Apaf1 inhibits Bcl2, Caspase-8 or 9 is activated, caspases degrade cell components
What is the correct order of gene expression in the early Drosophila embryo?
gap genes, pair-rule genes, segment polarity genes
In the mid-1990s, a sheep (Dolly) was successfully cloned using Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer. In this technique
the nucleus of an egg was removed and the egg was fused with a body cell.
Check all of the possible results of a mutation in an integrin protein.
an alteration of cellular growth
a defection of attachment of the cell to the extracellular matrix
the failure to induce changes in gene transcription
Briggs and King demonstrated nuclear transplantation in
The low success rate and age-related diseases associated with reproductive cloning is thought to be due to
Check all of the following approaches that have been used to reprogram adult cell nuclei.
Fusion of embryonic stem cells (ES cells) with body cells
Transfer of a body nucleus into an egg cell
Culturing of some adult stem cells for a long time
Forced expression of specific transcription factors in the cells
Plants do not utilize the process of cell migration in their development. Instead plants utilize
the process of building themselves outwardly via the meristems present in the developing plant tissues.
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