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number if people affected by a disease in a given period of time in relation to total population
physicians required to report occurence of thesee diseases to u.s. public health service
Source of disease organisms Human-human disease
-Animal-disease spread from animals to humans (zoonotic)
-Nonliving-primarily soil and water
infected individuals show no signs or symptoms i.e thyphoid mary: carrier for illness
may weaken the immune system and allow for a more serious secondary infection i.e HIV and pneumonia
molecule that reacts specifically with either an antibody or an antigen recepeter on a lymphocyte
originate from stem cells located in bone marrow. upon encounter with its specific antigen a b-cell will proliferate and convert to a plasma cell circle throughtout the body waiting for antigen. b-cells become memory cells
antibody "factories" which produce "only" the antibody specific for the antigen that triggered its production
works to elimate extracelluar antigens bacteria, toxins viruses B cells are responsible for Humoral immunity
Dependent on activity of T cells. T-cells mature in the thymus 2 types CD4 and CD8
3 types of APC
B cell dendritic cell, macophage MHC 1- presents antigen to CD8 T cells, MHC 11- presents antigen to CD4 and T cells expressed only on APC
Function of Tc Cells
MHC1 presents intracelluar antigens (derived from viruses, intracelluar bacteria) to CD8 and T cells. Any particualr CD8 T cell will only recognize one antigen Upon binding to its appropriate antigen. MHC 1 complex, CD8 T cells induce cell death in the target cell
Chemical messenger: Secreted cytokines may stimulate B-cells to develop into plasma cells or memory B cells (TH2) secreted cytokines may stimulate activation of macrophages and or stimulate CD8 T-cell activity (TH1)
for most human diseases humans are the reservoir, and the disease is most easily controlled
preferred portal of entry
for many microbes, they must enter by their preferred portal in order to cause disease
magic bullet, Chemotherapy, tried to find the "magic bullet" that could hunt down and destroy a pathogen without harming the infected host. Found salvarsan works on syphilis
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