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The most common cause of hyponatremia is-

excess aldosterone secretion
aldosterone deficiency
excess water intake
excess sodium secretion
ADH deficiency

aldosterone deficiency

The collecting ducts of the kidney have intercalated cells which can...

A. override the limiting pH and secrete more H+ into urine.
B. secrete aldosterone in response to hyponatremia.
C. secrete renin and activate the angiotensis-aldosternone system.
D. reabsorb K+ from the urine
E. secrete K+ into the urine

reabsorb K+ from the urine

Women may retain water at certain times of the month because estrogen...

mimics aldosterone
antagonizes antidiuretic hormone
is an angiotensin II synergist
stimulates the thirst center

mimics aldosterone


stimulate glomerular filtration
stimulate the thirst center
promote intestinal absorption of water
are water channels in the collecting duct
are active transport pumps for water

are water channels in the collecting duct

What will be the result if the number of NA+-K+ pumps in the distal convoluted tubule is increased?

A. The potassium concentration of the urine will fall
B. The potassium concentration of the urine will rise
C. The sodium concentration of the blood will rise
D. The sodium concentration of the blood will fall
E. The electrolyte composition of the urine will be homeostatically stabilized

The potassium concentration of the urine will rise

Excessive ADH secretion is most likely to produce

fluid sequestration
volume depletion
hypotonic hydration

hypotonic hydration

Edema is likely to result from

increased blood osmolarity
increased capillary permeability
obstruction of the lymphatic vessels
histamine secretion

increased blood osmolarity

The majority of water in your body is in the

blood plasma and lymph
interstitial fluid
intracellular fluid
extracellular fluid
cerebrospinal spinal

intracellular fluid

The fluid that forms the cerebrospinal, synovial, peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial fluids as well as vitreous and aqueous humors, bile, and fluids of the digestive, urinary, and respiratory tracts are part of the

intracellular fluid
transcellular fluid
interstitial fluid
blood plasma

transcellular fluid

Water lost through the breath and cutaneous transpiration is called ___ water loss and averages about ___ mL/day.

insensible; 700
obligatory; 400
metabolic; 200
performed; 2,300
facultative; 500

insensible; 700

The minimum urine output to avoid abnormally high levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is about ___ mL/day.



In response to dehydration, the thirst center in the hypothalamus sends ___ signal to the salivary glands to ___ saliva production.

sympathetic; increase
sympathetic; decrease
parasympathetic; increase
parasympathetic; decrease
somatic; increase

sympathetic; decrease

What percent change in plasma osmolarity would make one intensely thirsty?

0.2 to 0.3
2 to 3
10 to 15
20 to 30
5 to 8

2 to 3

Short-term inhibition of thirst is caused by ____, and long-term inhibition of thirst is caused by ____.

A. distension of stomach and small intestine; decreased osmolarity of the blood
B. decreased osmolarity of the blood; distension of stomach and small intestine
C. constriction of stomach and small intestine; increased osmolarity of the blood
D. increased osmolarity of the blood; constriction of stomach and small intestine

distension of stomach and small intestine; decreased osmolarity of the blood

Dehydration results in increased blood and ECF osmolarity, which causes osmolarity receptors to stimulate the formation of ___ by the hypothalamus that causes ___ in the DCT and CD.

ADH; decreased water reabsorption
ADH; increased water reabsorption
aldosterone; decreased sodium and water reabsorption
aldosterone; increased sodium and water reabsorption
angiotensin II; increased sodium reabsorption

ADH; increased water reabsorption

Hemorrhaging, vomiting, and diarrhea can all result in

the release of glucagon
the release of insulin
cardiogenic shock


To excrete one liter of sweat, the majority of water will come from the

glomerular filtrate
intracellular fluid
extracellular fluid
lymphatic system
interstitial fluid

intracellular fluid

You were getting ready to go cross country skiing in the snow. Before you leave it would be best to drink



You were working outside on a hot day, sweating profusely, and drinking large quantities of water. You be subjecting yourself to

volume excess
hypotonic hydration
hypertonic hydration

hypotonic hydration

You are getting really concerned about taking in enough fluids. You decided to double your fluid intake from two to four liters per day. Your blood volume would ___ and your urine volume would ____.

increase; increase
stay the same; increase
stay the same; stay the same
decrease; increase
increase; stay the same

stay the same; increase

Which of the following would not stimulate the adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone?

decreased Na+
increased K+
decreased Ca2+
decreased H2O

decreased Ca2+

In response to high blood pressure, this hormone increases the secretion of Na+ and H2O in urine.


An increase in the blood plasma concentration of ____ may lead to water retention, hypertension, and edema.



Hyperkalemia (increased K+) will stimulate the ___ to release ____.

adrenal cortex; aldosterone
adrenal medulla; EP
hypothalamus; ADH
pancreatic islets; insulin
pancreatic islets; glucagon

adrenal cortex; aldosterone

An individual is suffering from the following symptoms: muscle weakness, depressed reflexes, and irregular electrical activity of the heart. This individual most likely has

increased Na+ (hypernatremia)
decreased Ca2+ (hypocalcemia)
decreased K+ (hypokalemia)
decreased Cl-1 (hypocloremia)
increased K+ (hyperkalemia)

decreased K+ (hypokalemia)

Some tumors of the adrenal cortex secrete excess aldosterone and may cause paralysis. You would expect decreased levels of ___ causing ___ levels of nervous system activity.

calcium; increased
potassium; decreased
sodium; increased
sodium; decreased
potassium; increased

potassium; decreased

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