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Crisis Intervention Strategies - Ch 1 Approaching Crisis Intervention
Def. of Crisis Trans-crisis states Theories of crisis and crisis intervention Crisis intervention models
Terms in this set (77)
An event in typical human development that produces an abnormal response is called.
Equilibrium Model of Crisis Intervention
is most appropriately used when the person is out of control and needs to be stabilized.
occurs when a small, isolated incident is not contained and begins to spread.
Unresolved issues from a previous traumatic event resurface because of a current stressor
May last 6-8 weeks
occur frequently in transcrisis states within the therapeutic intervention. Can be seen as benchmarks that are crucial to progressive stages of positive therapeutic growth.
People are in a state of crisis when:
1. they face an obstacle to important life goals (disorganization)
2. know no response to deal with a situation
3. immobilizes people and prevents them from consciously controlling their lives
Traumatic event causes crisis when:
it is unpredictable and uncontrollable (there is an inability to influence it by one's actions)
Crisis (equilibrium, signs)
a loss of psychological equilibrium or a state of emotional instability that includes elements of depression and anxiety which is caused by an external event with which individuals are unable to cope with at their usual level of ability
an acute emotional upset arising from situational, developmental, or sociocultural sources, and results in a temporary inability to cope by means of one's usual problem-solving devices in response to a stressor
occurs when a crisis escalates to the point that the situation requires immediate intervention to avoid injury or death.
Indirect behavioral emergencies
occur when people make bad decisions and wind up placing themselves in potentially lethal situations and are crises that happen with no directed purpose or intentionality to do something harmful to oneself or others
a traumatic event occurs that
people, institutions, communities, and ecologies are overwhelmed and response systems are unable to effectively contain and control the event in regard to both physical and psychological reactions to it.
Basic Crisis Intervention Theory (Lindemann)
Behavioral responses to crises associated with grief are normal, temporary, and amenable, to short-term intervention techniques. Addresses affective, behavioral cognitive distortions due to traumatic events
Normal Grief Behaviors Include: (Lindemann)
1. Preoccupation with the lost one
2. Identification with the lost one
3. Expressions of guilt and hostility
4. Some disorganization in daily routine
5. Some evidence of somatic complaints
Basic Crisis Intervention Theory (Caplan)
Crisis occurs when something impedes life goals that cannot be overcome through customary behaviors
Basic Crisis Theory
Equilibrium and disequilibrium paradigm (Caplan)
1. Disturbed equilibrium
2. Brief therapy or grief work
3. Client's working through the problem or grief
4. Restoration of equilibrium
Resolve ongoing emotional issues
Expanded Crisis Theory
Explores social, environmental, and situational factors of a crisis.
Presupposes that some early childhood fixation is the primary explanation of why an event becomes a crisis.
General Systems Theory
Interdependence among people who experience crisis
broadens out the base of the system theory to include environmental context.
depicts a person's crisis as being sustained through maladaptive behaviors
a state of crisis cannot be sustained if a person has an intact sense of self-worth and has a support system
Locus of control
when people confer their locus of self-evaluation on others, they become dependent on others for validation of their being. Therefore, as long as a person maintains an external locus of control, the crisis will persist.
theory of evolution and evolutionary psychology. It is evolutionary in that it is essentially an open-ended, ever-changing, "self-organizing"
potential for crisis arises from developmental tasks that are not accomplished
Applied Crisis Theory
1. Normal developmental Crises
2. Situational Crises
3. Existential Crises
4. Ecosystemic Crises
Normal developmental Crises
normal flow of human growth and evolution
dramatic change or shift occurs that produces abnormal responses. i.e. birth of a child, graduation, midlife career change.
uncommon and extraordinary events that an individual has no way of forecasting or controlling. i.e. terrorist attacks, auto accidents, kidnappings, rapes, job loss or sudden illnesses
inner conflicts and anxieties that accompany important human issues of purpose, responsibility, independence, freedom, and commitment. i.e. at age 40 one will not have impact in an organization
typically occur when some natural or human-caused disaster overtakes a person or a large or small group of people who find themselves, through no fault or action of their own, inundated in the aftermath of an event that may adversely affect virtually every member of the environment in which they live. i.e. hurricanes, floods, etc.
Crisis Intervention Models
1. Traditional models
2. Modern models based on Ecosystemic Theory
3. Modern models based on field-practice
4. Eclectic mode of crisis intervention
The Equilibrium Model
1. crisis seen as state of psychological equilibrium
2. Main focus is stabilizing the individuals
3. most appropriate for early intervention
The Cognitive Model
1. Crises are rooted in distorted thinking about the events or situations that surround the crisis not in the events themselves
2. The goal is to help the client change their views and beliefs about the crisis events.
3. Most appropriate for stabilized individuals
The Psychosocial Transition Model
1. Assumes that people are products of their genes and their learning environment.
2. The goal is to gain coping mechanisms and establish a support system.
3. Most appropriate for stabilized individuals.
The Developmental-Ecological Model
Crisis worker should assess the individual's developmental stage, their environment, and the relationship between the two.
The Contextual-Ecological Model
1. layered by relationships physical proximity and the emotional meaning attributed to the event
2. Reciprocal impact occurs between the individual and the system
3. time directly influences the impact of the crisis (holiday)
Psychological First Aid
1. seeks to address the immediate crisis situation and provide immediate relief, possibly to a wide range of individuals.
Psychological First Aid (National Center for PTSD - US Department of Veterans Affairs
1. Contact and engagement
2. Safety and comfort
4. Information Gathering: Current needs and concerns
5. Practical assistance
6. Connection with social support
7. Information on coping
8. Linkage with collaborative services
Assessment of the presenting problem
Connecting clients to support systems
Traumatic reactions and posttraumatic stress disorders
Eclectic Crisis Intervention Theory
a hybrid of all available approaches. It operates from a task orientation, as opposed to concepts. Major task are:
1. To identify valid elements in all systems and integrate them
2. To consider all pertinent theories, methods, and standards for evaluating and manipulating clinical data
3. To identify with no specific theory
Eclectic Crisis Intervention fuses two pervasive themes
1. all people and all crises are unique and distinctive
2. all people and all crises are similar
Characteristics of Effective Crisis Workers
1. Life Experiences
2. Personal Characteristics
b. Creativity and flexibility
c. Energy and resiliency
d. Quick mental reflexes
f. Other - tenacity, ability to delay gratification, calmness under duress, objectivity, a strong and positive self-concept, courage, abiding faith
typically attempts to re-mediate more or less on-going emotional problems.
In terms of crisis intervention, ___theory, is reflected in initial tasks of predisposition, problem exploration, and providing support in our overall crisis intervention model.
First known crisis phone lin
National Save-a-Life League
Cocoanut Grove night club fire
Dr. Erich Lindeman - surviviors had common emotional responses and a need for psychological support
Caplan's input Cocoanut Grove fire
Made first attempts to explain what a crisis is and build theory of crisis
Community Mental Health Centers Act of 1963
replaced state-run asylums
When do crisis interventions become publically recognized?
when get enough political, economic, or legal pressure
Crisis agencies become ____ ________ they gain 3 things
3 major grassroots movements help shape crisis intervention into emerging specialty
Women's movement during the 1970s
What is the key to getting fledgling crisis agency rolling?
What is necessary for agency to become successful?
Centralize and formalize its operation
Who saw need for inclusion of psychological traum in helping service curricula?
post-intervention trauma; trade shows, trade publications, talks shows, charitable giving
Does all trauma lead to psychopathy?
Do victims of disaster typically panic?
No they come together with the community
Individual crisis (slide 7)
perception or experiencing of an event or situation as an intolerable difficulty that exceeds the person's current resources and coping mechanisims
Direct Behavioral Emergencies
1. Self-injurious behavior
2. Perpetrating violent interpersonal behavior
3. Being a victim of violence
4. Suicide/homocide related to romance
Examples of what causes indirect behavioral emergencies
Systemic crises - main identifying factor
system is in disequilibrium and previous response systems and coping mechanisms no longer work
Systemic crises - examples (slide 10)
2. natural disasters
3. manmade - structural failure; war
Metastasizing crises - examples
bullying that is not addressed, and is now 24 hours/day
Metastasizing crisis - primary prevention
stopping a problem before it starts
Metastasizing crisis - secondary prevention
minimizing the harmful effects that have already occurred
How can crisis be both danger and opportunity?
Danger - stress may result in self hurt or hurt others
Opportunity - seek help
How can crisis provide seeds of growth and change?
Individuals will not seek help until they can admit thaty they do not have control of the problem
It is the discomfort that makes them seek change
Characteristics of Crisis
1. Presence of danger and opportunity
2. Provide seeds of growth and change
3. No panaceas or quick fixes
4. Necessity of Choice
5. Universality and idiosyncrasy
8. Complicated symptomology
Necessity of Choice
Choosing is proactive
Deciding not to choose is a choice with negative results
In crisis - what causes the distress?
Perception causes the stress, not the event
Is crisis linear?
No, it is complex
transcrisis state - original trauma will reemerge and instigate a new crisis with new stressors
Transcrisis Points characteristics
1. approaching avoidance behavior in seeking help
2. taking risks
3. initiating action steps toward forward movement
Will experience disorganization adn disequilibrium that surround the original crisis event
Major theories of crisis intervention
1. Basic Crisis Theory
2. Expanded Crisis Theory
3. Applied Crisis Theory
Theories that influence Expanded Crisis Theory
1. psychoanalytic theory
2. general systems theory
Traditional models of crisis intervention
1. equilibrium model
2. cognitive model
3. psychosocial transition model
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