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Psychology Chapter 14
Terms in this set (69)
In MOST parts of the world today, a _____ model is used to help identify and treat psychological disorders.
Jessalynn has been diagnosed with both anxiety and depression. The co-occurrence of two or more disorders, as seen in the case of Jessalynn, can be described as:
_____ means that a person has more than one disorder at the same time.
If anxiety leads a person to study for an exam, then it is _____, but if it keeps the person from ever leaving home, then it is _____.
People with phobias are _____ likely to recall personal experiences with their feared objects, compared with people without phobias, suggesting that environmental influences on the development of phobias is only a partial explanation for their occurrence.
Bob constantly feels nervous, describing his situation as a "low hum of anxiety," with no particular trigger. Because of this, he feels restless, is unable to sleep, and can't concentrate. With which disorder is Bob MOST likely to be diagnosed?
generalized anxiety disorder
For someone with _____ disorder, an action must be performed in order to alleviate anxiety associated with a recurring thought.
When someone is experiencing obsessive-compulsive disorder, obsessions are _____ and compulsions are _____.
repetitive thoughts; ritualistic behaviors
Each day, Wayne felt he had to lock and unlock his door 11 times before he left his house. Wayne could not leave without doing this ritual because of his fear that for the rest of the day he would repeatedly think about his door being unlocked. With which disorder does it sound like Wayne would be MOST appropriately diagnosed?
An unusually small-sized _____ may be an indicator of a susceptibility to PTSD.
What did the studies that investigated the hippocampal volume of Vietnam veterans and their identical twins find?
decreased hippocampal volume for both war veterans with PTSD and their twin
Which symptom is NOT generally associated with posttraumatic stress disorder?
Monica has just gone through the first major depressive period in her life and did not seek out any treatment for the symptoms she experienced. What is the likelihood that she will experience another one at some point?
She has an 80% chance of recurrence
The _____ theory of depression proposes that those individuals MOST likely to suffer from depression attribute their bad experiences to internal, global, and stable causes.
Which statement about bipolar disorder is TRUE?
It shares common genetic risk factors with schizophrenia, autism, and ADHD.
Clara has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. She will often sit in strange positions for hours, without any apparent awareness of her surroundings. What symptom is she experiencing?
Which would be considered a negative symptom of schizophrenia?
Which disorder has a low rate of occurrence yet accounts for approximately 40 percent of admissions to state and county mental hospitals?
_____ is a condition that begins in early childhood and is marked by persistent communication deficits and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Regarding the chronic nature of Autism Spectrum Disorder, one recent study conducted by Helt and colleagues (2008) found that as many as _____ percent of children diagnosed with ASD ultimately lose their diagnosis over time.
In examining possible neurological explanations for ADHD, some research has found structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks associated with:
attention and behavioral inhibition.
Which term would MOST likely apply to a child who suffers from conduct disorder?
The DSM defines a child as suffering from conduct disorder when (s)he meets at least 3 of a list of 15 symptoms. As a result, there are approximately _____ different combinations of symptoms that could lead to this diagnosis.
Which three problem areas BEST summarize the issues and symptoms of conduct disorder?
anger, impulsivity, and rule-breaking
What are the three main categories of personality disorders in the DSM-5?
odd/eccentric, anxious/inhibited, and dramatic/erratic
Which is NOT one of the clusters of personality disorders in the DSM-5?
Individuals with this type of personality disorder exaggerate their own achievements and often make a very good first impression.
Which individual is MOST at risk for committing suicide?
an older white man who suffers from major depressive disorder
Which has NOT been identified as a factor that increases one's risk of engaging in suicidal actions?
a desire to gain retribution on others who have wronged the individual
Which statement about suicidal behavior is TRUE?
More men die by suicide, but women have more nonfatal attempts.
a persistent disturbance or dysfunction in behavior, thoughts, or emotions that causes significant distress or impairment
a common set of signs and symptoms
a known pathological process affecting the body
a determination as to whether a disorder or disease is present
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
a classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicates how the disorder can be distinguished from other, similar problems
These are conditions that begin early in development and cause significant impairments in functioning, such as intellectual disability (formerly called "mental retardation"), autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficient/hyperactivity disorder.
Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders
This is a group of disorders characterized by major disturbances in perception, thought, language, emotion, and behavior.
Bipolar and Related Disorders
These disorders include major fluctuations in mood—from mania to depression—and can include psychotic experiences, which is why they are placed between the psychotic and depressive disorders in DSM-5
These are conditions characterized by extreme and persistent periods of depressive mood
These are disorders characterized by excessive fear and anxiety that are extreme enough to impair a person's functioning, such as panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and specific phobia
Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
These are conditions characterized by the presence of obsessive thinking followed by compulsive behavior in response to that thinking.
Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders
These are disorders that develop in response to a traumatic event, such as posttraumatic stress disorder
These are conditions characterized by disruptions or discontinuity in consciousness, memory, or identity, such as dissociative identity disorders (formerly called "multiple personality disorder")
Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
These are conditions in which a person experiences bodily symptoms (e.g., pain or fatigue) associated with significant distress or impairment.
Feeding and Eating Disorders
These are problems with eating that impair health or functioning, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa
These involve inappropriate elimination of urine or feces (e.g., bed-wetting)
These are problems with the sleep-wake cycle, such as insomnia, narcolepsy, and sleep apnea
These are problems related to unsatisfactory sexual activity, such as erectile disorder and premature ejaculation
This is a single disorder characterized by incongruence between a person's experienced/expressed gender and assigned gender
Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders
These are conditions involving problems controlling emotions and behaviors, such as conduct disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, and kleptomania.
Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders
This collection of disorders involves persistent use of substances or some other behavior (e.g., gambling) despite the fact that such behavior leads to significant problems.
These are disorders of thinking caused by conditions such as Alzheimer's disease or traumatic brain injury
These are enduring patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that lead to significant life problems
These are conditions characterized by inappropriate sexual activity, such as pedophilic disorder
Other Mental Disorders
This is a residual category for conditions that do not fit into one of the above categories but that are associated with significant distress or impairment, such as unspecified mental disorder due to a medical condition
Medication-Induced Movement Disorders and Other Adverse Effects of Medication
These are problems with physical movement (e.g., tremors, rigidity) that are caused by medication
Other Conditions that May be the Focus of Clinical Attention
These include problems related to abuse, neglect, relationship, or other problems
explains mental disorders as the result of interactions among biological, psychological, and social factors
suggests that a person may be predisposed for a psychological disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress
Research Domain Criteria Project (RDoC)
a new initiative that aims to guide the classification and understanding of mental disorders by revealing the basic processes that give rise to them
Abnormal psychological experiences are conceptualized as illnesses that, like physical illnesses, have biological and environmental causes, defined symptoms, and possible cures
Where do we draw the line between normal and abnormal?
- Peculiar beliefs
- Strong personality vs. personality disorder
Objectively observed indicators of a disorder
Subjectively reported behaviors, thoughts, and emotions
First revision; provides common language for talking about disorders
DSM-III (1980) and DSM-IV (1994)
Moved from vague disorder descriptions; provides detailed list of symptoms/diagnostic criteria for more than 200 disorders; improves reliability in diagnosis of mental disorders
Rosenhan Experiment (1973)
On being sane in insane places
incorporates biological, psychological, and environmental factors.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
Condition beginning in early childhood in which a person shows persistent communication deficits as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities
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