British-American explorer of Africa, famous for his expeditions in search of Dr. David Livingstone. He helped King Leopold II establish the Congo Free State.
Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.
A commodore in the American navy. He forced Japan into opening its doors to trade, thus brining western influence to Japan while showing American might.
Otto Van Bismarck
Prime Minister of Prussia (largest state in Northern Germany); wanted a greater, unified Germany (smaller Southern states to join Prussia; preferred "iron and blood" to diplomacy
The political mastermind behind all of Sardinia's unification plans, he succeeded in creating a Northern Italian nation state
Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico
Ottoman sultan who attempted to return to despotic absolutism during reign from 1878 to 1908; nullified constitution and restricted civil liberties; deposed in coup in 1908
A well known explorer and missionary of Africa for over 30 years. He wrote about Africa with more sympathy and less bias than most writers of his time.
King Leopold II
King of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908). (p. 732)
Empress Dowager CiXi
Empress of China and mother of Emperor Guangxi. She put her son under house arrest, supported antiforeign movements, and resisted reforms of the Chinese government and armed forces. (p. 721)
Kaiser Willhelm I
after the Franco-Prussian war, southern Germany had nationalistic feelings
accepted Prussia as their leaders
at the captured French palace in 1871 King Willhelm of Prussia was crowned kaiser
kaiser: German emperor
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882)
the czar of Russia whose plans to liberalize the government of Russia were unrealized because of the wars with Napoleon (1777-1825)
an accomplished general and the President of Mexico continuously from 1876 to 1911, with the exception of a brief term in 1876 when he left Juan N. Méndez as interim president, and a four-year term served by his political ally Manuel González from 1880 to 1884. Commonly considered by historians to have been a dictator, he is a controversial figure in Mexican history.
Proceeded cautiously, picking loyal officers and building up his dependable artillery corps, drilled in the european manner; destructed the janissaries
British Queen, under whose rule the British empire reached the height of its wealth and power, forced to accept a new, virtually powerless role after the Chartist movement
Italian nationalist whose writings spurred the movement for a unified and independent Italy (1805-1872)
Victor Emmanuel II
King of Piedmont, Savoy, and Sardinia. Eventually became first king of a united Italy. Led the north in Italian unification and united with Garibaldi's south in 1861. Drove the pope into the Vatican city, and eventually made Rome the capital of Italy.
(1881) son of Alex II, increased use of secret police, censorship, exiles to Siberia, Russianunification to suppress non-Russians, pogroms
Emperor of Ethiopia who played Italians, British, and French against each other while buying weapons from France and Russia. In the Battle of Adowa, Ethiopian forces successfully defeated the Italians and maintained their independence.
a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)
Scramble for Africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts. (p. 731)
Wars between the Dutch and British in Africa. A sort of cold war between the two powers. The Dutch wanted slavery but the English didn't
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
the attitude (of a person or a government) that subordinates should be controlled in a fatherly way for their own good
system of colonial government in which the imperialist power controlled all levels of government and appointed its own officials to govern the colony.
war between Great Britain and China, began as a conflict over the opium trade, ended with the Chinese treaty to the British- the opening of 5 chinese ports to foreign merchants, and the grant of other commercial and diplomatic privileges
a white native of Cape Province who is a descendant of Dutch settlers and who speaks Afrikaans
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
a nation's right to establish its own form of government and laws without external influence
White Man's Burden
idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized
a state or territory partly controlled by (but not a possession of) a stronger state but autonomous in internal affairs
Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.
Berlin Conference of 1885
Meeting in Berlin, called by Bismarck to regulate European colonization of Africa - called for "effective occupation" to claim territory. Led to the scramble for Africa. Recognized Leopold's claim to Congo.
Russia and japan both wanted korea. the US stepped in and helped japan lower its offerings to agree to a peaceful treaty
The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny.
a system of colonial government under which the governor and a council of advisers developed laws for the colony but local rulers were given the opportunity to exert some degree of authority.
organization formed by muslims in 1906 to protect their interests against British Rule.
Nationalistic group/army created and led by Guiseppe Garibaldi to end foreign control of Italy during the 19th century.
Set up by Otto Von Bismarck, war was declared July 19, 1870. In January 1871, Palace of Versailles was captured and Wilhelm I was named Kaiser. This empire was called the Second Reich.
The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire.
Emancipation of the Serfs
Tsar Alexander II ended rigorous serfdom in Russia in 1861; serfs obtained no political rights; required to stay in villages until they could repay aristocracy for land.
Series of reforms in the Ottoman Empire between 1839 and 1876; established Western-style universities, state postal system, railways, extensive legal reforms; resulted in creation of new constitution in 1876
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
Blood and Iron
"Blood and Iron" was the speech that Otto Von Bismarck gave with the belief that a strong industry and military was needed in a country to have success. The blood represented the military while the iron represented the industry of Germany.
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries