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Artful diction; the use of language in a nonliteral way; also called a figure of speech.


Implies a comparison between two things


A figure of speech that uses like or as to compare two things


Compares two things, often point by point, to show similarity; to argue that if two things are alike in one way they are probably alike in other ways as well


The speaker cleverly and often humorously needles the listener


The use of overstatement for special effect


Requires a quiet, muted message to make its point effectively

Rhetorical questions

Questions that don't require answers


Substitutions of a descriptive word or phrase for a proper name


The use of words to convey a meaning in tension with or opposite to their literal meanings


A special arrangement of words


Involves the use of grammatically similar phrases or arguments


The use of parallel structures to show opposition or contrast

Inverted word order

The parts of a sentence or clause are not in the usual subject-verb-object order


Effective repetition

Reversed structures

Using the first part of the sentence or paragraph to shape the second part.

Your manuscript is both good and original. But the part that is good is not original, and the part that is original is not good.

Reversed structure

Chicago's the place were organized Black history was born, where gospel music was born, where jazz and the blues were reborn, where the Beatles and the Rolling Stones went up to the mountaintop to get the new musical commandements from Chuck Berry and the rock'n'roll apostles.


Hard to see, the dark side is.

Inverted word order

That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.


Current government programs don't protect poor people very well against the cost of becoming sick. They do much better at protecting sick people against the risk of becoming poor.


His Airness; The Great One; The Sultan of Swat


Why me? How should I know?

Rhetorical question

Martin Luther King, Jr., was a "true leader"


I take it you've discovered who started the riot.
We knew who he was all along.
It's just nothing we can do to him.
Why not, for God's sake?
He's dead.
He hadn't ought to have freed us if he didn't want to make provisions to feed us. Anyone could have told him that.


Obama is: JFK in 1960
He appeals to new generation; first memeber of long-discriminated group to win; glamorous wife; support of Ted and Caroline Kennedy.


Taking in my opponent's performances is a little like watching a big summer blockbuster.


Life is a journey, purposes are destinations, means are routes, difficulties are obstacles, counselors are guides, achievements are landmarks, choices are crossroads


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