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Anthro 24 exam 2
Terms in this set (74)
Bone Isotope Analysis
looking at chemical isotope levels to determine diet & migration of people/animals
A disease that causes bone tissue to appear spongy and become soft. Presence is used to detect malnourished populations. A high incidence of the disease indicates that the population adapted poorly to its environment or was under nutritional stress.
A symptom of iron deficiency anemia in which the bone of the upper eye sockets takes on a spongy appearance.
Defect of the teeth in which the tooth enamel is hard but thin and deficient in amount. This is caused by defective enamel matrix formation with a deficiency in the cementing substance.
Lines near the end of a juvenile long bone, detected through radiographs and indicate episodes of temporary slowing or cessation of bone growth due to physiological stress (e.g. malnutrition) in childhood
between 3.9 & 2.9 mil. years old. closest relative to homo out of any hominoid at the time. (Lucy)
final missing link between the Australopithecus genus and the human genus, Homo. Approximately 2.5 myr
The A. robustus remains generally are from three sites: Swartkrans, Dreimulen, and Kromdraai. By far the largest of these sites is Swartkrans. One of the major problems with these South African sites is dating, but generally, robustus remains can be safely placed from 2.0-1.0 myr, and possibly even earlier.
first nearly complete skeleton of Australopithecus afarensis. Found in Ethiopia; about 3.18 million years old.
6 mil. years old, first complete skeleton found.
extinct chronospecies of Homo that lived in eastern and southern Africa during the early Pleistocene, between 1.8 million and 1.3 million years ago. possible descendent of homo erectus or shares a common ancestor.
Steep sided ravine in the Great Rift Valley in the eastern Serengeti Plains in northern Tanzania and is about 48 km (30 mi) long. inhabited by homo habilis, erectus, and sapiens
site in Tanzania, dated to the Plio-Pleistocene and famous for its hominin footprints, preserved in volcanic ash.
remains include partial skeletons of Australopithecus afarensis; key species in human evolution. Located in lower Awash River valley in the Afar region of Ethiopia.
In China, from Zhoukoudian; H. erectus between 500,000 and 250,000 ya.
Oldowan Tool Industry
used by Hominines during the Lower Paleolithic period. The earliest stone tool industry in prehistory, being used from 2.6 million years ago up until 1.7 million years ago. followed by Acheulean.
Acheulian Tool Industry
associated with early humans during the Lower Palaeolithic era across Africa and much of West Asia, South Asia and Europe. Typically found with Homo erectus remains.
Torralba & Ambrona
Two paleontological sites located two kilometers apart on the Ambrona River in the Soria region of Spain; archaeological site in where large mammal remains and stone tools from 400,000 years ago suggest early hominid hunting or scavenging
located in the valley of the Great Zab, Iraq. Excavated from 1957-1961 by Ralph Solecki and his team. Yielded the first adult Neanderthal skeletons in Iraq, dating between 60-80,000 years BP (10 skeletons). Indicate burial ceremonies, including flowers and that they took care of injured members.
distinctive type of stone knapping developed by precursors to modern humans during the Palaeolithic period.
Located on the slopes of Mount Boron in Nice, France. Contained tools of the lower Paleolithic period, dated to about 400,000 BC, as well as traces of some of the earliest domestication of fire in Europe.
Cave in Nice, France.Part of the skull of a nine-year old child from the cave suggests that either homo heidelbergensis or a proto-Neanderthal group occupied it almost two hundred thousand years ago. Lower Palaeolithic period.
One of the most important sites in Africa. It has produced a sequence of past human activity stretching over more than 250,000 years. Late Acheulian stone tools, hearths and organic objects were found there including a wooden club and digging sticks and evidence of fruit consumption. Tools excavated from Kalambo Gorge have been dated to around 300,000 BC, and the hearths indicate people were using fire systematically there some 60,000 years ago.
François Bordes suggested that five toolkit variations indicated different Neanderthal groups. This was challenged by Lewis Binford, who suggested they reflected assemblages for different tasks. Lack of correlation between toolkits and differing environments or activities undermines Binford's theory.
Klasies River Caves
modern humans who lived by recognizably human methods, hunting game and gathering plant foods ~125,000 years ago in caves on Tsitsikamma coast of South Africa, near the small stream called Klasies River. The site located at the very southern tip of Africa.
Upper Paleolithic "Revolution"
shift from Middle to Upper Paleolithic.
tool used to throw javelins; spearthrower
Upper Paleolithic era, tool made by striking narrow stone flake from stone core.
contains the earliest known cave paintings, as well as other evidence of Upper Paleolithic life.
contain some of the best-known Upper Paleolithic art. These paintings are estimated to be 17,300 years old. SW France
located in Czech Republic known for a series of ice age archaeological sites in the area. These sites were used by mammoth hunters, and finds include a triple burial and the Venus of Dolní Věstonice.
large open air site where several mammoth bone huts with hearths and pit features were used between about 14,000-15,000 years ago.
umbrella term for a number of prehistoric statuettes of women portrayed with similar physical attributes from the Upper Palaeolithic, mostly found in Europe
land bridge connecting Alaska to Siberia. used by homos to migrate to americas
hypothesis believing people associated with the Clovis culture were the first inhabitants of the Americas. The primary support for this was that no solid evidence of pre-Clovis human inhabitation had been found. Has been disputed and proved wrong.
southeast Colorado. The Paleo-Indian site dates back to an estimated 8000-6500 B.C. and provides evidence for bison hunting long before the use of the bow and arrow or horses. contains a bone-bed of almost 200 bison that were killed and processed by Paleo-Indian hunter.
The artifacts from the site show the area has been continually inhabited for 16,000 years, since Paleo-Indian times. Oldest known site of human habitation in North America.
Cactus Hill Site
SE Virginia. Archaic stage material is underlain by fluted stone tools associated with the Clovis culture reported dated to 10,920 BP. A lower level yields artifacts including unfluted bifacial stone tools with ages reported ranging from 15,000 to 17,000 years old. White pine charcoal from a hearth context on this level has reported dates to 15,070 radiocarbon years BP. Further charcoal deposits retrieved at the site have a reported date to as early as 19,700 years ago, although these deposits may have been made by forest fires.
Monte Verde Site
southern Chili, dates back to 14,800 years BP. adds to the evidence showing that settlement in the Americas pre-dates the Clovis culture by roughly 1000 years. This contradicts the previously accepted "Clovis first" model which holds that settlement of the Americas began after 13,500 BP.
Worked on the Meadowcroft Rockshelter
C. Vance Haynes
known for unearthing and studying artifacts of Paleo-Indians including ones from Sandia Cave in the 1960s
involved in the excavations at Monte Verde
known for advocating the Solutrean hypothesis
temporary inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, created by the retreating glaciers during the close of the last ice age.
representation of the changes of the sea level throughout the geological history
small cave located within the eastern range of mountains in the Valley of Oaxaca. The site was occupied at least six times between 8000 and 6500 BC, by hunters and gatherers, show early cultivation of bottle gourds
St. Johnsbury Cemetery
found that farmers bodies were better fed & healthier
War of 1812 Burial Ground
soldiers & adult males are similar in large stature because they are farmers.
Clovis/fluted points vs PreClovis
clovis points- fluted, first found in mexico. 13.5 thousand years ago. PreClovis-
The study of the human biological component evident in the archaeological record.
The study of bone
walking on two legs
found in Great Rift Valley (Africa) 1.3 million years ago.
First Homo Erectus discovery. Richard Leaky found a nearly complete skeleton. Had lower forehead, smaller brain capacity
When sea levels were lower, Java was connected to the main land.
Site located in East Africa. Artifacts are around 200,000 years old. Found many organic remains which are important to the preservation of plant remains.
functionally discreet artifacts (different tool types are associated with different functional needs)
Small bodied hominim from Indonisia (like a hobbit) from around 12,000 - 38,000 years ago. Shows what happens when certain species must adapt to places such as tropical rain forests, etc.
slow, even paced change over time
periods of stasis interrupted by rapid, major change
Found in North Africa/Sub-saharan Africa
Found in Europe/Middle East
humans killed off all megafauna
Stanford and Bradley argue that Upper Paleolithic "solutrean" tools from France are present along the coast of eastern US
Difference between humans and apes
length of childhood. baby chimps brains are fully formed by age 3....humans take up to 20 years to fully develop.
pieces of art that could be carried from place to place. typically small decorated artifacts such as shells, pottery, bones, jewelry, etc.
Nutrition and Status
Archaeologists found that bodies with higher nutrition often had a higher status than others living at that time
phenotypic differences between males and females of the same species (pheasants have both color and size differences between males and females)
stress involving work
South Carolina between 15,000 and 50,000 years ago
the first people to enter the American continent during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period
humans first spread themselves all along routes in Africa predominately along coastlines 100,000 - 200,000 years ago.
when certain sites that were originally above ground were slowly flooded over and over and are now underwater due to new lakes and river formations
archaeology of gender
studying past societies through their material culture by closely examining the social construction of gender identities and relations.
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