APES Chapter 8 Study Guide
Terms in this set (80)
A vent in the Earth's surface that emits ash, gases, or molten lava
A large expanse of rock where a fault has occured
Intrusive Igneous Rock
Igneous rock that forms when magma rises up and cools in a place underground
The exact on the surface of Earth directly above the location where the rock ruptures during an earthquake
In Geology, a space where molten material from Earth's mantle reaches the lithosphere
A scale that measures the largest ground movement that occurs during an earthquake
Rock formed directly from magma
The theory that the lithosphere of Earth is divided into plates, most of which are in constant motion
The innermost zone of Earth's interior, composed mostly of iron and nickel, It includes a liquid outer layer and a solid inner layer
The outermost layer of earth, including the mantle and crust
Rock that forms when sediments such as muds, sands, or gravels are compressed by overlaying sediments
Rock that forms when sedimentary rock, igneous rock, or other metamorphic rock is subjected to high temperature and pressure
The formation of new ocean crust as a result of magma pushing upward and outward from Earth's mantle to the surface
A fracture in rock caused by a movement of Earth's crust
The layer of Earth located in the outer part of the mantle, composed of semi-molten rock
The sudden movement of Earth's crust caused by a release of potential energy along a geologic fault and usually causing a vibration or trembling at Earth's surface
The process of one crustal plate passing under another
Extrusive Igneous Rock
Rock that forms when magma cools above the surface of Earth
Convergent Plate Boundary
An area where plates move toward one another and collide
The sum of the processes that build up and break down the lithosphere
In geology, a crack that occurs in rock as it cools
The layer of Earth above the core, containing magma
The frequency and intensity of earthquakes experienced over time
The geologic cycle governing the constant formation, alteration, and destruction of rock material that results from tectonics, weathering, and erosion, among other processes
In geology, the chemically distinct outermost layer of the lithosphere
Divergent Plate Boundary
An area beneath the ocean where tectonic plates move away from each other
Transform Plate Boundary
An area where tectonic plates move sideways past each other
Typically minor earthquakes and tremors that are caused by human activity that alters the stresses and strains on the Earth's crust
A zone of leaching, or eluviation, found in some acidic soils under the O horizon or, less often, the A horizon
The breakdown of rocks and minerals by chemical reactions, the dissolving of chemical elements from rocks, or both
A concentrated accumulation of minerals from which economically valuable materials can be extracted
Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)
The ability of a particular soil to absorb and release cations
Mountain Top Removal
A mining technique in which the entire top of a mountain is removed with explosives
The mechanical breakdown of rocks and minerals
A soil horizon composed primarily of mineral material with very little organic matter
Mining Spoils (tailings)
Unwanted waste material created during mining
The least-weathered soil horizon, which always occurs beneath the B horizon and is similar to the parent material
A Horizon (topsoil)
Frequently the top layer of soil, a zone of organic material and minerals that have been mixed together
In resource management, the known quantity of a resource that can be economically recovered
Mining techniques used when the desired resource is more than 100 m (328 feet) below the surface of Earth
The loss of some or all of a soil's ability to support plant growth
The process of looking for minerals, metals, and precious stones in river sediments
The physical removal of rock fragments from a landscape or ecosystem
A mining technique that uses a large visible pit or hole in the ground
The proportion of soil bases to soil acids, expressed as a percentage
The rock material from which the inorganic components of a soil are derived
The organic horizon at the surface of many soils, composed of organic detritus in various stages of decomposition
The average concentration of an element in Earth's crust
An element with properties that allow it to conduct electricity and heat energy, and to perform other important functions
Acid Precipitation (acid rain)
Precipitation high in sulfuric acid and nitric acid from reactions between water vapor and sulfur and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere
The removal of strips of soil and rock to expose ore
A horizontal layer in a soil defined by distinctive physical features such as texture and color
Select the correct combination of igneous rock types and conditions under which they form
Obsidian: smooth, very fine grained, hardens rapidly so crystals don't have time to develop.
What is the difference between weathering and erosion?
Weathering refers to the breakdown of rock; erosion refers to the removal of rock from its landscape.
Rocks comprise primary minerals that erode to secondary minerals and then to ionic forms of these minerals. An example is
granite ® feldspar ® clay ® potassium ions.
Granitic rock is the dominant rock type
in continental crust.
Which chemical reaction is involved in the creation of acid precipitation?
I. Sulfur dioxide and water vapor combine to create sulfuric acid.
II. Hydrogen and chlorine combine to create hydrochloric acid.
III. Sulfur and oxygen combine to create sulfur dioxide.
I and III
Topsoil is the
Magma circulates in convection cells in Earth's
The porosity of soil is a measure of
How quickly it drains
Earth's lithosphere includes
All of the crust
Earth's core is approximately ____ below the surface.
The damage an earthquake is capable of causing can be predicted by
I. its magnitude on the Richter scale.
II. the proximity of the epicenter to densely populated areas.
III. the quality of building construction close to the earthquake zone.
I, II, and III
The high temperatures at the center of Earth are thought to be the result of
Select the correct combination of igneous rock type and composition.
Granitic: feldspar, mica, quartz
What role do lichens play in weathering?
Lichens play a role in chemical weathering because they produce weak acids.
A geologist finds a substance with uniform crystalline structure and composition throughout. In the lab it is determined that the substance consists of more than one element. What is this substance?
Soil is more fertile when
the parent material has a high calcium carbonate content.
Which legislation mandates that land should be minimally disturbed during the mining process and reclaimed after mining is completed?
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977
Which statement about hybrid vehicles is accurate?
A hybrid car has the potential to use only half as much gasoline as an internal combustion car.
Plant roots cause
both physical and chemical weathering.
Which practice does NOT accelerate erosion of soil?
The European continent and North America are moving away from each other at a rate of 36 mm/year. Which most closely approximates how much farther apart the continents were in 2010 than when Christopher Columbus crossed the Atlantic in 1492?
Could an earthquake that has a magnitude 5.9 on the Richter scale cause more damage than one that measures 7.5?
Possibly, if there are more people living in the area
Nuclear power plants in seismically active areas
Nuclear power plants are programmed to shut down if ground movement above a certain threshold occurs.
Which provided evidence for the change in continent location over time?
rock formations in sequences that match on opposite sides of the atlantic
Cation exchange capacity in clay
is high, meaning it absorbs and releases positively charged ions
Erosion is NOT caused by
Which does NOT occur as a result of mining the metals needed to build hybrid cars?
No non-renewable resources are used.