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mechanical weathering

The breaking of rock into smaller pieces by forces due to gravity, ice, plant, roots or other forces.


Earth's outermost and thinnest layer


Rocks that form when layers of materials and rock particals settle on top of eachother, than harden.

chemical weathering

The changing of materials in a rock by chemical processes.


The very center of Earth and is made of mostly iron


A type of rock formed when existing rock is heated at high temperature.


Large section of Earth's crust that are constantly moving into, away from, and past each other.


The thickest of the Earth's layers, together with the crust, form the lithosphere.


A type of rock formed when magma cools and hardens.

Oceanic Crust

Mostly made of basalt it is about 6 to 10 kilometers thick and is below most of the ocean floor.

Continental Crust

Mostly made of granite and can be as thick as 75 kilometers. It can be under the ocean or make up land.


made up of the top part of the mantle and the crust above it.

Characteristics to identify minerals

hardness, luster, shape, streak, texture, magnetism

Three Layers of Soil

topsoil, subsoil, bedrock

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