HUSH chapter 10 terms and essays
Terms in this set (33)
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the US Constitution, ratified in 1791 and guaranteeing such rights as the freedoms of speech, assembly, and worship; This bill was put forth by Anti-Federalists, who feared forms of government intrusion on personal liberties.
Judiciary Act of 1789
a United States federal statute adopted on September 24, 1789, in the first session of the First United States Congress. It established the federal judiciary of the United States; It organized the Supreme Court, originally with five justices and a chief justice, along with several federal district and circuit courts. It also created the attorney general's office. This Act created the judiciary branch of the U.S. government.
Funding at Par
meant that the federal government would pay off its debs at face value, plus accumulated interest which at the time had a total of $54 million. This included the federal government taking on the debts by the states and paying for it as a country; an economic plan devised in 1790 by Hamilton in order to "bolster the nation's credit" and strengthen the central government.
Part of Hamilton's economic theory. Stated that the federal government would assume all the states' debts for the American Revolution. This angered states such as Virginia who had already paid off their debts.
a tax or duty to be paid on a particular class of imports or exports; designed to raise revenue for the federal government; resulted in a government surplus
Bank of the United States
This was founded by Alexander Hamilton. It based its system on the British Bank and became significant for its "national debt" which acted, at least in early years, as a "national adhesive"; was established in 1791 to serve as a repository for federal funds and as the government's fiscal agent.
was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791, during the presidency of George Washington. The so-called "whiskey tax" was the first tax imposed on a domestic product by the newly formed federal government; In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Reign of Terror
a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between two rival political factions, the Girondins and the The Mountain, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution". While many Jeffersonians maintained their faith in the French Republic, Federalists withdrew their already lukewarm support once the Reign of Terror commenced.
a formal announcement issued by U.S. President George Washington in May 1793, declaring the nation neutral in the conflict between France and Great Britain. It threatened legal proceedings against any American providing assistance to any country at war.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
the last major conflict of the Northwest Territory Indian War between Native Americans and the United States; British forces refused to shelter the routed Indians, forcing the latter to attain a peace settlement with the United States; new army under General "Mad Anthony" Wayne routed the Miami Indians at this battle, and the British refused to shelter Indians fleeing from the battle
Battle of Greenville
peace of the Battle of Fallen Timbers; signed in August 1795, confederacy gave up vast tracts of the Old Northwest, in exchange the Indians received $20,000, an annual annuity of $9000, the right to hunt the lands they had ceded, and recognition of their sovereign status
it followed negotiations after the Native American loss at the Battle of Fallen Timbers a year earlier. It ended the Northwest Indian War in the Ohio Country and limited strategic parcels of land to the north and west. The parties to the treaty were a coalition of Native American tribes, known as the Western Confederacy, and United States government represented by General Anthony Wayne for local frontiersmen.
was signed in San Lorenzo de El Escorial on October 27, 1795 and established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain.; Treaty negotiated by Thomas Pinckney in which Spain recognized the right of Americans to navigate the Mississippi and use the New Orleans port. Spain also agreed to fix the northern boundary of Florida along the 31st parallel and prevent Indians from launching raids across the border into the U.S.
a letter written by the first American President, George Washington, to "The People of the United States of America".; A document by George Washington in 1796, when he retired from office. It wasn't given orally, but printed in newspapers. It did not concern foreign affairs; most of it was devoted to domestic problems. He stressed that we should stay away from permanent alliances with foreign countries; temporary alliances wouldn't be quite as dangerous, but they should be made only in "extraordinary emergencies". He also spoke against partisan bitterness. This document was rejected by the Jeffersonians, who favored the alliance with France.
a political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, early in the administration of John Adams, involving a confrontation between the United States and Republican France that led to an undeclared war called the Quasi-War.; 1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress.
Convention of 1800
a treaty between the United States of America and France to settle the hostilities that had erupted during the Quasi-War; signed in Paris that ended France's peacetime military alliance with America. Napoleon was eager to sign this treaty so he could focus his attention on conquering Europe and perhaps create a New World empire in Louisiana. This ended the "quasi-war" between France and America; freed America from its alliance with France (Franco-American Treaty of 1778), forgave French $20 million in damages and resulted in Adams' losing a second term as president
Alien Laws/ Sedition Act
four laws passed by the Federalists in the 5th United States Congress and signed into law by President John Adams in 1798, the result of the French Revolution and during an undeclared naval war with France, later known as the Quasi-War; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Four Parts are 1) Raised the residence requirement for American citizenship from 5 to 14 years. 2) Alien Act - Gave the President the power in peacetime to order any alien out of the country. 3) Alien Enemies Act - permitted the President in wartime to jail aliens when he wanted to. (No arrests made under the Alien Act or the Alien Enemies Act.) 4) The Sedition Act - Key clause provided fines and jail penalties for anyone guilty of sedition. Was to remain in effect until the next Presidential inauguration.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
drafted by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Response to the Alien and Sedition Acts. Argued that the states had the right to judge the constitutionality of federal laws. Declared the Alien and Sedition Acts void.
(1732-1799) no political party. Virginian who began as a commander and chief in the Revolutionary war. Had no desire to become president but the people wanted a strong national leader. Set prescient for many things, including the two terms rule. Warned US against being involved in foreign politics.
Hamilton emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington, Alexander Hamilton spearheaded the government's Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States.
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. He and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
French ambassador who came to American and said that Washington was obligated to aid France during the French Revolution because of the French-American Treaty of Alliance. However, Washington and his Cabinet argued that the treaty was with the now-dead king. Washington then stated the Neutrality Proclamation, which angered Thomas Jefferson, who retired from his position
Miami Indian chief in the Northwest Indian War (also known as Little Turtle's War) who lead a number of successful attacks against white military forces in order to resist white settlers' encroaching on Indian land, but was ultimately defeated at the Battle of Fallen Timbers
"Mad Anthony" Wayne
the British held trading posts in the Ohio Valley and encouraged the local Indian tribes to attack the Americans. Led by Wayne, the Americans defeated the Miami Indians in the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794 near what is today Toledo, Ohio. This paved the way for American settlement of the Ohio Valley.
1st Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, negotiated with British for Washington;
This man played an important role in the establishment of the new government under the Constitution. One of the authors of The Federalist Papers, he was involved in the drafting of the Constitution.
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
Charles Maurice de Tallyrand
French foreign minister whose attempts to solicit bribes from American envoys in the infamous XYZ Affair prompted widespread calls for war with France.;
French, attended Congress in place of Louis XVIII, wanted to make sure France could never again to rise to power.
What were the most important steps that George Washington took to establish the authority and prestige of the new federal government under the constitution?
In order to establish authority of the new central government, Washington created the cabinet which was a body of advisers to the president, as well as the treasury and Secretary of State, officials to offices and the making of treaty's.
Explain the purpose and significance of the Bill of Rights. Did these Ten Amendments significantly weaken the authority of the federal government, or actually enhance it?
The purpose of the Bill of Rights was to appease the anti federalists in order to ratify the constitution by protecting individual rights.The Bill of Rights was created to protect the rights of the citizens, residents or visitors of the United States. It was meant to correct and prevent the injustices brought upon by Parliament to the colonists. It was also seen as a method to keep the national government in check by limiting its powers.
Although it was originally meant as a means of compromise between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists, the Bill of Rights have since become essential in American law and government. It is one of those monumental and immortal texts of American history. It weakened federal authority by dictating what the national government cannot do and safeguarded the liberties of the people. Prime examples of the Bill of Rights undermining federal authority is the right to petition guaranteed by the First Amendment and the Reserved Powers Clause in the Tenth Amendment.
What were Hamilton's basic economic and political goals, and how did he attempt to achieve them?
Hamilton wanted to create a stable economy in the US through foreign trade, tariffs, funding and assumption. Through funding and assumption he wanted to pay off all federal bonds in order to strengthen the national credit. He made it an obligation for the federal government to pay all debts. He also funded the Bank of the United States so that the government could control the currency and investments.
What were the basic goals of Washington's and Adams's foreign policies, and how successful were they in achieving them?
Washington's and Adam's main goal was to avoid war at all costs since the nation was still fragile and in a very important formation period and the last thing it needed was war to disrupt its stability. They were both successful by declaring neutrality.
Although Federalists and Republicans engaged in extremely bitter political struggles during this period, they both retained their commitment to the American experiment, and in 1800, power was peacefully handed from Federalists to Republicans. What shared beliefs and experiences enabled them to keep the nation together, despite their deep disagreements? Was there ever a serious danger that the new federal government could have collapsed in civil war?
There were several instances when the anti federalists created rebellions against the government like the whiskey and shay's rebellion that created significant tension between the opposing political parties but even though they had different ideas on how to govern the nation and spread the power, both parties wanted stability and unity.
What were the philosophical and political disagreements between Hamilton and Jefferson that led to the creation of the first American political parties?
Alexander Hamilton firmly believed in the need for a powerful central government. He had been an officer in the American army during the Revolution, and saw first-hand the results of a weak central authority. While soldiers froze and starved to death, the Continental Congress could only beg for state assistance. Hamilton had powerful allies, including George Washington and James Madison, although Madison later questioned a too-powerful federal government and came to oppose Hamilton. Jefferson, however, served as ambassador in France during the American Revolution. He believed the threat of tyranny was ever-present in a strong central government. A proponent of the need for state sovereignty, Jefferson believed political power should come from the bottom up. Jefferson believed the union of the states was a voluntary one, and if the national government exceeded its enumerated powers, the states had the power to nullify federal law.