Biology Multiple Choice Review
Terms in this set (86)
always contain carbon
You've made a hot drink by dissolving a teaspoon of instant coffee and a teaspoon of sugar in a cup of hot water. Which of the following statements is true?
You've just prepared an aqueous solution.
Which of the following statements about water is false?
Ice is more dense than liquid water
Sucrose is formed
from two monosaccharides through dehydration synthesis
The temperature of evaporation is much higher for water than for alcohol. Without knowing more about chemistry of alcohol, which of the following is the most logical chemical explanation for this phenomenon?
Fewer hydrogen bonds form between alcohol molecules. As a result, less heat is needed for alcohol molecules to break away from solution and enter the air.
Water's surface tension and heat storage capacity are accounted for by its
Two molecules are structural isomers. What is the difference between them?
the number of carbon atoms
What change is occurring in this figure?
Chlorine is filling its third electron shell
What happens to an atom if the electrons in the outer shell are altered?
The properties of the atom change
Which of the following statements regarding the oxygen atom of a water molecule is true?
Oxygen is more electronegative than the hydrogen atoms
Which of the following statements regarding chemical reactions is false?
Some chemical reactions create electrons; others destroy them
Which of the following best describes the atomic number of an atom?
The number of protons in the atom
The tendency of water molecules to stick together is referred to as
You hypothesize that a table of PEPCID AC can neutralize more stomach acid than a tablet of Alka-Seltzer. If you placed a tablet of each antacid in a beaker of acid at an initial pH of 2, which of the following experimental results would support your hypothesis?
After 1 hour, the pH of the solution in the PEPCID AC beaker was 9.2 and the pH of the solution in the Alka-Seltzer beaker was 8.3
What is the atomic mass of an atom that has 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons?
Which of the following statements about pH is true?
An increase in hydrogen ion concentration means a decrease in pH scale units.
Which of the following statements regarding carbon is false?
Carbon has the ability to bond with up to six other atoms
In the equation 2H2 + O2 -> 2H2O, the H2 molecules are ___, and the H2O molecules are ___
donates H+ ions when conditions become too basic and accepts H+ ions when conditions become too acidic
In the equation 2H2 + O2 -> 2H2O,
only H2O is a compound
As ice melts,
hydrogen bonds are broken
Which of the following trace elements needed by humans is commonly added to table salt?
Which type of fat was found to contribute the most relative risk of developing heart disease?
Below is a molecules of caffeine. Which of the following features are not present in a molecule of caffeine?
a carboxyl group
In a water molecule, hydrogen and oxygen are held together by a __ bond
Which of the following particles are found in the nucleus of an atom?
protons and neutrons
Which of the following lists contains only polysaccharides?
cellulose, starch, and glycogen
Fatty acids with double bonds between some of their carbons are said to be
Which of the following statements about hydrocarbons is false?
Hydrocarbons are inorganic compounds
The structure of leucine, an amino acid. What type of bond is the arrow pointing to?
a polar covalent bond
The function of mitochondria is
A group of single cell organisms collected from the ocean was brought into the lab for examination. The lab assistant was concerned that the water had become full of toxic waste products and so added clean water to the culture. All of the organisms died, and when she looked at them under the microscope, all she could see were bits and pieces of them scattered throughout the water? What likely happened?
She added water that was hydrotonic to the culture of organisms, and they ruptured.
are able to drift about in the plasma membrane
Which of the following cell structures are associated with the breakdown of harmful substances?
The function of the nucleolus is
to manufacture ribosomal RNA
A woman is having trouble becoming pregnant. Examination of her partner's sperm indicated that dynein feet are missing from the flagella in his sperm cells. A physician explains that this could interfere with fertility by
preventing the sperm from swimming to the egg cell
According to __ energy, energy cannot be created or destroyed
the first law of thermodynamics
What is the basic difference between exergonic and endergonic reactions?
Exergonic reactions release energy; endergonic reactions absorb it
In the plasma membrane, the phospholipid heads
are hydrophilic and face outward toward the aqueous solution on both sides of the membrane
The molecules responsible for membrane transport are
The stroma is the
thick fluid enclosed by the inner chloroplast membrane
prevent cells from bursting as a result of the influx of excess water
Which of the following structures is exclusively associated with prokaryotic cells?
Small, nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules such as fatty acids
easily pass through a membrane's lipid bilayer
The nucleoid region of a prokaryotic cell
contains the cell's DNA
Which of the following statements about plant cell walls is false?
Plant cell walls protect plant cells by forming an impermeable layer around the cell
Which of the following statements regarding diffusion is false?
Diffusion occurs when particles spread from areas where they are less concentrated to areas where they are more concentrated
Which of the following statements about the functions of a plant cell central vacuole is false?
The central vacuole of a plant cell may digest chemicals for recycling
Which of the following statements regarding thermodynamics is false?
An automobile engine is a closed system because it does not exchange energy and matter with its surroundings
Unlike animal cells, plant cells have __ and __. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have ___
chloroplasts; cell walls; centrioles
Which of the following processes produces the most ATP per molecule of glucose oxidized?
Which of the following are produced during the Calvin cycle?
glucose, ADP, NADP+
Which of the following statements regarding the movement of electrons during cellular respiration is true?
O2 is reduced when it accepts electrons and forms water
The ultimate source of all the food we eat and the oxygen we breathe is
As a result of glycolysis, there is a net gain of __ ATP(s)
Which of the following statements regarding glycolysis is false?
Gylcolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system because it is the most efficient metabolic pathway for ATP synthesis
Which of the following are products of cellular respiration?
energy to make ATP and carbon dioxide
What is the main adaptive advantage of the C4 and CAM photosynthesis strategies over the C3 strategy?
They help the plant synthesize glucose efficiently under dry conditions
Which of the following are produced during the light reactions of photosynthesis?
ATP, NADPH, O2
Which of the following molecules is a product of photosynthesis?
glucose and O2
Which H+ has just passed through the inner mitochondrial membrane by diffusion?
hydrogen ion D
The energy that excites the photosystems is supplied by
A packet of light energy is called a
How many molecules of NADH are produced during glycolysis?
In photophosphorylation, energy from electron flow is used to transport __ from the __ to the thylakoid compartment, generating a concentration gradient of __.
H+; stroma; H+
Which of the following is a result of glycolysis?
conversion of glucose to two three-carbon compounds
During cellular respiration, NADH
delivers its electron load to the first electron carrier molecule
The electron transport chains of the light reactions
shuttle electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I
Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true?
Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts, and cellular respiration occurs in motochondria
ATP is synthesized when H+ ions move through a channel in ATP synthase
The genetic material is duplicated during
the S phase
During which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up on a plane equidistant from the two spindle poles?
The mechanism that "breaks" the linkage between linked genes is
The process by which the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell divides to produce two cells is called
Research since Mendel's time has established that the law of segregation of genes during gamete formation
applies to all sexually reproducing organisms
Any gene located on a sex chromosome
is called a sex-linked gene
Independent orientation of chromosomes at metaphase I and random fertilization are most like
shuffling cards and dealing out hands of poker
Eukaryotic cells spend most of their cell cycle in which phase?
Mendel's law of independent assortment states that
each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs of alleles during gamete formation
A colorblind woman marries a man who is not colorblind. All of their sons, but none of their daughters, are colorblind. Which of the following statements correctly explains these results?
The gene for color vision is found on the X chromosome
Independent orientation of chromosomes at metaphase I results in an increase in the number of
possible combinations of characteristics
Recessive x-linked traits are more likely to be expressed in a male fruit fly than a female fruit fly because
the male's phenotype results entirely from his single x-linked gene
Which of the following occurs during interphase?
cell growth and duplication of the chromosomes
Sister chromatids are
joined together at a centromere
A cell that has a cell wall is undergoing cell division, and the following events are observed: the formation of a cell plate and the division of the cell into two daughter cells. What type of cell is being observed and what process(es) is it going through?
plant cell; telophase and cytokinesis of mitosis
Unlike animal cells, plant cells have __ and __. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have ___
chloroplasts; cell walls; cnetrioles