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Forms of Energy: Radiant or electromagnetic
energy traveling in waves (i.e., visible light, ultraviolet light, and X rays)
Composition of Matter: Elements
unique substances that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means
Lesser and Trace Elements of the Human Body
Lesser elements make up 3.9% of the body and include: Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S), sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl), magnesium (Mg), iodine (I), and iron (Fe) - Trace elements make up less than 0.01% of the body, They are required in minute amounts, and are found as part of enzymes
Atomic Structure: Electrons
Electrons are found orbiting the nucleus, They have a negative charge and 1/2000 the mass of a proton (0 amu)
Models of the Atom: Orbital Model
regions around the nucleus in which electrons are most likely to be found
Mixtures Compared with Compounds: Mixtures
No chemical bonding takes place in mixtures, Most mixtures can be separated by physical means, Mixtures can be heterogeneous or homogeneous
Mixtures Compared with Compounds: Compounds
Compounds cannot be separated by physical means, All compounds are homogeneous
Electron shells, or energy levels, surround the nucleus of an atom, Bonds are formed using the electrons in the outermost energy level
Ions are charged atoms resulting from the gain or loss of electrons, Anions have gained one or more electrons, Cations have lost one or more electrons, Opposite charges on anions and cations hold them close together, forming ionic bonds
Formation of an Ionic bond
Ionic compounds form crystals instead of individual molecules, Example: NaCl (sodium chloride)
Too weak to bind atoms together, Common in dipoles such as water, Responsible for surface tension in water, Important as intramolecular bonds, giving the molecule a three-dimensional shape
Patterns of Chemical Reactions: Combination reactions:
Synthesis reactions which always involve bond formation, A + B r AB
Patterns of Chemical Reactions: Decomposition reactions
Molecules are broken down into smaller molecules, AB r A + B
Patterns of Chemical Reactions: Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions
Reactants losing electrons are electron donors and are oxidized, Reactants taking up electrons are electron acceptors and become reduced
Rate of Chemical Reactions: Concentration
higher reacting particle concentrations produce faster reactions
Rate of Chemical Reactions: Catalysts
increase the rate of a reaction without being chemically changed
Water: Polar solving properties
dissolves ionic substances, forms hydration layers around large charged molecules, and serves as the body's major transport medium
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