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muslces of the head

galea aponeurotica
orbicularis oris
orbicularis oculi

orbicularis oculi



retracts scalp, elevates eyebrows

orbicularis oris

closes lips


elevate the mandible

temporalis OI

O: cranium
I: coronoid process of mandible


elevate the mandible

masseter OI

O: zygomatic arch
I: mandibular ramus


compresses cheek against teeth (fish face)

muscles of the neck

levator scapulae


depresses lower lip

sternocleidomastoid action

rotate or tilt head

sternocleidomastoid OI

O: sternum
I: mastoid process

muscles of the abdomen

rectus abdominus
external oblique
internal oblique
transverse abdominus
linea alba

rectus abdominis

vertical, straplike
linea alba

rectus abdominis OI

O: pubic symphysis
I: xiphoid process

external oblique


external oblique OI

O: ribs
I: iliac crest; pubic symphysis

4 pairs of sheetlike muscles
external oblique
internal oblique
transverse abdominis
rectus abdominis functions

support the viscera
stabilize the vertebral column
help in respiration, urination, defecation and childbirth

internal oblique OI

O: iliac crest
I: ribs; costal

transverse abdominal OI

horizontal fiber orientation
deepest layer
O: iliac crest
I: linea alba

muscles used in breathing

external intercostals
internal intercostals

external intercostals

extend downward and anteriorly from rib to rib
pull ribcage up and outward during inspiration

internal intercostals

extend upward and anteriorly from rib to rib
pull ribcage downward during forced expiration


Muscular dome between thoracic and abdominal cavities
Muscle fascicles extend to a fibrous central tendon

diaphragm/ contraction

Contraction flattens it
increases the vertical dimension of the thorax drawing air into the lungs

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