180 terms

Davis Lit Crit Terms

a pause or break within a line of poetry
involves a direct contrast (usually structurally parallel word groupings) generally for the purpose of contrast (e.g., sink or swim)
discordant, unpleasant noise
dramatic irony
(theater) irony that occurs when the meaning of the situation is understood by the audience but not by the characters in the play
literary device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases are placed closely or next to one another to show comparison or contrast
understatement, the opposite of hyperbole
a statement that seems contradictory or absurd but that expresses the truth (e.g., The more you know, the more you don't know.)
rhetorical shift
a change from one tone, attitude, etc. to another
situational irony
In this type of irony, an event occurs that directly contrasts the expectations of the characters, the reader, or the audience. (e.g., deep sea diver drowning in the bathtub)
a form of metaphor in which a part of something is used to stand for the whole thing (e.g. all hands on deck)
tragic flaw
a defect in the tragic hero that causes his downfall
verbal irony
a type of irony in which words are used to suggest the opposite of what is meant
the repetition of a grammatical structure
A novel or story whose theme is the moral or psychological growth of the main character; coming of age story
A detail, image, or character type that occurs frequently in literature and myth and is thought to appeal in a universal way to the unconscious and to evoke a response
repetition of a word or phrase as the beginning of successive clauses
an object of intense dislike; a curse or strong denunciation
short account of an amusing or interesting event
A protagonist who lacks one or more of the conventional qualities attributed to a hero. Instead of being dignified, brave, idealistic, or purposeful, the antihero may be cowardly, self-interested, alienated, or weak.
the representation of objects (especially a god) as having human form or traits
(linguistics) omission at the beginning of a word as in 'coon' for 'raccoon' or 'till' for 'until'
a concise statement that expresses succinctly a general truth or idea, often using rhyme or balance
address to an absent or imaginary person
a saying that widely accepted on its own merits
Ahead of the times, especially in the arts
a songlike poem that tells a story
black humor
humor that comes from situations that are grim or tragic
Bloomsbury Group
famous artists which included Virginia Woolf and John Keynes who challenged Victorian ideals and the repressive sexual morality of the previous generation
After 1750, a term applied to women of pronounces intellectual interests.
a short descriptive poem of rural or pastoral life
a collection of books accepted as holy scripture especially the books of the Bible recognized by any Christian church as genuine and inspired
strained or paradoxical use of words either in error (as 'blatant' to mean 'flagrant') or deliberately (as in a mixed metaphor: 'blind mouths')
a statement consisting of two parallel parts in which the second part is structurally reversed ("Susan walked in, and out rushed Mary.")
the principles and styles admired in the classics of Greek and Roman literature, such as objectivity, sensibility, restraint, and formality
The effects conveyed by a literary work (especially a play) in which the author adheres to one or more of the classical principles of dramatic structure (action, place and time)
concluding part of a literary or musical composition; something that summarizes or concludes
a fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects
a song or hymn of mourning composed or performed as a memorial to a dead person
badly written or trivial verse, often with a singsong rhythm
seemingly exact doubles who appear often as a forecast of death or disaster
double entendre
a statement that has two meanings, one of which is dirty or vulgar
a work of fiction describing an imaginary place where life is extremely bad because of deprivation or oppression or terror; e.g. The Hunger Games
The omission of an unstressed vowel or syllable to preserve the meter of a line of poetry.
poem or song expressing lamentation
Elizabethan Age
a period in British history during the reign of Elizabeth I in the 16th century
end-stopped lines
lines in which both the grammatical structure and the sense reach completion at the end
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
Epic Simile
a simile developed over several lines of verse
a witty saying
an inscription on a monument or building, on a coin, or at the beginning of a book or chapter
a short passage added at the end of a literary work
an inscription on a tombstone or monument in memory of the person buried there
a moment of sudden revelation or insight
An adjective or other descriptive phrase that is regularly used to characterize a person, place, or thing
Epistolary Novel
A novel composed wholly or primarily of letters. Unfolds through the written documents passed from person to person.
An indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant
any agreeable (pleasing and harmonious) sounds
a philosophy based on the idea that people give meaning to their lives through their choices and actions.
a renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
a nineteenth-century movement in literature and art which advocated a recording of the artist's personal impressions of the world, rather than a strict representation of reality.
a literary work or speech expressing a bitter lament or a righteous prophecy of doom
A device employed in Anglo-Saxon poetry in which the name of a thing is replaced by one of its functions or qualities, as in "ring-giver" for king and "whale-road" for ocean.
a dictionary; a specialized vocabulary used in a particular field or place
a prayer consisting of a series of invocations by the priest with responses from the congregation
a type of understatement in which an idea is expressed by negating its opposite (describing a particularly horrific scene by saying, "It was not a pretty picture.")
group of people against machinery and industrialization, attacked factories
(adj.) grisly, gruesome; horrible, distressing; having death as a subject
Magnum Opus
a great work of art or literature
A curse; a wish of evil upon another
Mystery play
a type of religious drama in the MIddle Ages based on stories from the Bible
revival of a classical style (in art or literature or architecture or music) but from a new perspective or with a new motivation
a newly invented word or phrase
objective correlative
T.S. Eliot's term for a pattern of objects, actions, or events, or a situation that can effectively awaken in the reader an emotional response without being a direct statement of that subjective emotion. T.S. Eliot stressed that the emotion is felt immediately as soon as all of the elements are given.
a lyric poem usually marked by serious, respectful, and exalted feelings toward the subject; usually directed twoard a single purpose and dealing with one theme
all knowing
a word or line sentence reading forward and backward; "civic,"
illustrtive story that tells a lesson
the placing together of sentances, clauses, or phrases without a conjunctive word or words ex. i came ,i saw,i conquered
An arrangement of phrases or clauses in a dependent or subordinate relationship.
passion play
A drama that portrays a portion of the life of a God; usually depicting the Passion of Christ: the trial, suffering and death of Jesus Christ. It is a traditional part of Lent in several Christian denominations, particularly in Catholic tradition.
imitation of another's style in musical composition or in writing; work of art openly imitating the works of other artists
a literary work idealizing the rural life (especially the life of shepherds)
pathetic fallacy
faulty reasoning that inappropriately ascribes human feelings to nature or nonhuman objects
a quality that arouses emotions (especially pity or sorrow)
an appeal based on logic or reason
The appeal of a text to the credibility and character of the speaker, writer, or narrator
putative author
the fictional author of a work, supposedly written by someone other than its actual author
This was the new style of literature that focused on the daily lives and adventures of a common person. This style was a response to Romanticism's supernaturalism and over-emphasis on emotion
using language effectively to please or persuade
a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
a French verse form of 10 or 13 lines running on two rhymes
Lyric verses written in Greek meter; stanzas of four lines, first three with eleven syllables, the last having five. In the first three lines, the sequence of five metrical feet it trochee, trochee or spondee, dactyl, trochee, trochee or spondee, spondee. In the fourth line, a dactyl is followed by a trochee or a spondee.
composers and storytellers of Anglo-Saxon poetry
slant rhyme
rhyme in which the vowel sounds are nearly, but not exactly the same (i.e. the words "stress" and "kiss"); sometimes called half-rhyme, near rhyme, or partial rhyme
stream of consciousness
A literary technique that presents the thoughts and feelings of a character as they occur.
one section of a lyric poem or choral ode in classical Greek drama; a type of stanza
exalted, noble, uplifting
a three-part deductive argument in which a conclusion is based on a major premise and a minor premise ("All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal.")
the use of one kind of sensory experience to describe another
(phonology) the loss of sounds in the interior of a word (as in 'fo'c'sle' for 'forecastle')
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
Artful diction; the use of language in a nonliteral way; also called a figure of speech.
an imaginary place considered to be perfect or ideal
the turn in thought—from question to answer, problem to solution—that occurs at the beginning of the sestet in an Italian sonnet
yellow journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Penny Dreadful
A cheaply produced paper bound novel or novelette of mystery, adventure, or violence popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in England; equivalent of an american DIME NOVEL
composers and storytellers of Anglo-Saxon poetry
Early medieval French musical entertainer who recited lyrics, ballads, and stories
A poet or musician who traveled around and entertained people with songs about chivalry and courtly love.
Marked use of the sibillant (hissing) sounds represented by s, z, sh, zh, and so forth.
EX: Now each visitor shall confess
occurs when a hypothetical, abstract concept is given a name and then treated as though it were a concrete, tangible object
the attribution of humanlike characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, or forces of nature (e.g. Winnie the Pooh, Peter Rabbit)
a simple story that illustrates a moral or religious lesson
a short moral story (often with animal characters)
..., a type of poem that is meant to be sung and is both lyric and narrative in nature
Describes a line of poetry in which the sense and grammatical construction continues on to the next line
the source of an artist's inspiration
the doctrine that regards the universe as a manifestation of God
using several conjunctions in close succession, especially where some might be omitted (as in 'he ran and jumped and laughed for joy')
the artistic philosophy that art should not just entertain, it should instruct or inform.
esemplastic power
to mold into unity
Ex. Coleridges "Frost at Midnight;" and "To Nature"
epistolary literature
Literature that is written in the form of a letter or a series of letters
the unwritten literature (stories and proverbs and riddles and songs) of a culture
condition in which many cultures coexist within a society and maintain their cultural differences
type of synecdoche in which the whole is suggested by contrasting parts
a proverb, wise saying
short account of an incident (especially a biographical one)
a short, witty saying
the quality of appearing to be true, real, likely, or probable
dramatic scene or picture
a style of orthography characterized by somewhat rounded capital letters
locus classicus
classical example
visit to the Underworld
use of two different words in a grammatically similar way but producing different, often incongruous, meanings (EX. "Mr. Pickwick took his hat and his leave."
Knickerbocker group
Early 19th century group in New York that wrote literature and enabled America to boast for the first time of a literature that matched its magnificent landscapes
Black Mountain School
Modernist experimental school in North Carolina that has produced such writers as Olson, Creely, and Duncan.
an element in literature that conveys a realistic portrayal of a specific geographical locale, using the locale and its influences as a major part of the plot
Seeing things exclusively through the eyes of one's own group, organization, or affiliation.
Elaborate and affected poetic style originated by16th century Spanish poet Luis de Gongora y Argote; includes unusual word order, word invention, personal symbolism, description of 5 senses, refrences to greek and roman mythology
the incorrect usage of words or forms of language
a narrative handed down from the past, containing historical elements and usually less of supernatural elements
a simple story that illustrates a moral or religious lesson
a traditional story accepted as history; uses supernatural episodes as a means of interpreting natural events
a composition that imitates somebody's style in a humorous way
(rhetoric) the introductory section of an oration or discourse
the belief that society has an innate tendency toward improvement and that this tendency may be furthered through conscious human effort
loosely defined movement in literature, fine art, the decorative arts, and interior design in later nineteenth-century Britain; used slogan "Art for Art's Sake;" authors include Wilde, Keats, and Rosetti
The philosophical theory that every human act or decision is the inevitable result of specific influences (physical, psychological, environmental) that are independent of human will
philosophy that tends to exalt the human element or stress the importance of human interests, as opposed to supernatural or divine elements
a diacritical mark (-) placed above a vowel to indicate a long sound
a diacritical mark (u-curved) placed over a vowel to indicate a short sound
needless repetition of an idea by using different but equivalent words; a redundancy
The use of deliberately old-fashioned language.
a linguistic process of transposition of sounds or syllables within a word or words within a sentence; EX: comfortable → comfterble
repetition at the end of a clause of the word that occurred at the beginning of the clause (EX: "Rejoice in the Lord always: and again I say, Rejoice.")
The appeal of a text to the credibility and character of the speaker, writer, or narrator
appeal to emotion
an appeal based on logic or reason
an explanation or critical interpretation (especially of the Bible)
the act of cutting short; EX. "it is an obvious truncation of the verse
a formal statement of commendation; high praise (particularly for someone who has died)
n. The inversion of terms in successive clauses, as in "the home of joy and the joy of home".
one of two or more words that are spelled alike but have different meanings and pronunciations, such as bass voice and bass, a fish
n. - use of a humorous modification of a person'sname
substitution of a common word or phrase for a proper name eg) "a Benedict Arnold" for a traitor
Juvenalian Satire
harsh, biting satire, full of moral indignation and bitter contempt
Horatian Satire
gentle, amused, witty satire; mildly corrective
a figure of reasoning in which one asks and then immediately answers one's own question (or raises and then settles imaginary objections); reasoning aloud
Repitition of words in succussive clauses in reverse grammatical order ("You can take the boy out of the country, but you can't take the country out of the boy.")
involving clever rogues or adventurers especially as in a type of fiction
pruning poem
a poem in which succeeding rhyme words have initial sounds or letters pared away. For example, the last words in each line might be "charm" then "harm" then "arm."
(n.) an impressive piece of work, especially a musical composition or other work of art
the text of an opera or other dramatic musical work
Domesday Book
A record of all the property and holdings in England commissioned by William the Conqueror in 1066 so he could determine the extent of his lands and wealth
cubist poetry
Poetry that attempts to take the elements of an experience, fragment them, and arrange them in a meaningful new synthesis.
square poem
has a certain number of syllables per line and the same number of lines in a stanza. Ex: twelve lines with twelve syllables each.
Rhetorical enumeration. Ex: What comes first? Can you see? Tell us. It is 5,800,000 rifles and carbines, 102, 000 machine guns, 28,000 trench mortars, 53,000 field and heavy guns...
Giving an abstract concept a name and then treating it as though it were a concrete, tangible object.
refers to Christ's sacrificial self- emptying by becoming man and dying for the sins of all people
n. an elaborate and lengthy tale of sadness