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From the 8th edition of "Personality Theories" by Barbara Engler


the reduction of tension by satisfying deficit states or lacks

D-needs (deficiency needs)

needs that arise out of a lack


growth tendencies within the organism

B-needs (being needs)

needs that arise from the oranism's drive to self-actualize and fulfill its potential

Hierarchy of needs

Maslow's theory of five basic needs ranked in order of strength: physiological, safety, belonging and love, self-esteem, and self-actualization


a dynamic within the organism leading it to actualize, fulfill, and enhance its inherent potentialities

Peak experience

an intensified experience in which there is a loss of self or transcendence of self

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