Rejected the divine establishment of the Church and taught that it was a result of a number of New Testament communities
Ignatius of Loyola
Founded the Jesuits; wrote the Spiritual Exercises
Catherine of Sienna
On who the Carmelite reform was based, thus generating a fresh commitment to the inner life of contemplation in the Church
left a record of Christian humanism that continues to influence ideals of liberal arts scholarships
In who ultramontanists found their man; ruled the Church for 32 years
Pope John Paul XXIII
Opened the Second Vatican Council to update the response of the Church to the contemporary needs of the modern world
Marks the beginning of the "era of the church"
Council of Chalcedon 451
Decided that Christ is one divine person in two natures- human and divine
Provided the Church with a dynamic presence in urban ministry during the 1200s
Became an emperor of the west and an advocate of Christianity
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