Terms in this set (172)
The first permanent English settlement in North America
The Virginia House of Burgesses was significant because
acted as the first legislative body in the Americas
The British established the Virginia Company in order to
establish settlements on the coast of North America.
"Joint stock companies" were organizations meant to establish colonies in the Americas by people from
Why were the American colonies so valuable to the British Empire?
The colonies produced raw materials that were shipped to England.
Which Colonies were characterized by villages with town meetings and small farms?
New England Colonies
What was the main reason the Pilgrims and the Puritans came to America?
To practice their religion freely.
What was the major cause of the shift from the use of White indentured servants to the use of Black slave labor in Virginia in the 1600s?
Economic recovery in England reduced the supply of White indentured servants.
Powhatan and Bacon's Rebellion are connected because they both relate to which colonial issue?
Issues with Native Americans.
Which crop was significant to the early growth of the North American colonies in the 1600s?
The Salem Witch Trials were primarily instigated by
religious hysteria and social turmoil.
Which describes the importance of town meetings in colonial New England?
First instances of democracy in the colonies.
Why was the loss of the Massachusetts Charter in 1684 significant to the inhabitants of the colony?
Now subject to more direct control from England
What area of North America was controlled by Great Britain around the year 1700?
King Philip's War and Bacon's Rebellion are similar in that both are examples of
colonial conflicts with Native Americans.
How did the colony of New York form? Created
after the British took it from the Dutch
Why was the colony of Rhode Island founded?
British created it after taking it from the Dutch
The mid-Atlantic colony of Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn PRIMARILY because of his
wish to found a lagical, well planned, religiously tolerant colony
Why is it correct to say the settlement of Pennsylvania has more in common with Jamestown than with New York?
Jamestown and Pennsylvania were settlements granted by the king. Whereas New York was acquired through a treaty
By the late 1500's the French had already established contact with indigenous people in modern day Canada. Why was establishing a permanent settlement in Quebec important?
To provide a place to conduct their fur trade.
What location had easy access to water, was a good location for the capital of New France, and provided permanent place for the French to conduct fur trade with Native Americans?
Both Jamestown and New York City were located
along rivers and the Atlantic Ocean
What is the name of the following set of practices from the 16th and 17th centuries: the best way to have a prosperous country was to heavily regulate the economy and limit imports from other countries while trying to accumulate as much gold and capital as possible.
The system known as "Triangular Trade" involved
North America, Africa, and Europe
What had the BIGGEST and EARLIEST impact on the system of mercantilism that developed in the 1600s?
colonization of the Americas
How are Mercantilism and the trans-Atlantic trade related?
Allowed Britian to obtaun their wealth
Describe the British colonial policy of mercantilism
Exercising British control over the economic activities in the colonies
What is the main reason African slaves were brought into the British colonies in Southern North America in the 17th century? How did the Middle Passage transform American society?
Southern colonies needed cheap labor.
The growth of what led the blending of multiple African cultures in America which led to the establishment of African-American Culture?
Growth of slavery
Which American historical figure symbolizes social mobility in the way he worked his way up from humble beginnings as a printer to become and inventor, ambassador, and major player in creating documents like the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution?
Why was the Great Awakening a significant national event?
Revived Christianity throughout the nation for both whites and blacks.
Which historical event did the following?
Unified 4/5 of colonists under a common understanding of Christianity
Led to the growth of Baptists, Presbyterians, and Methodists denominations
Placed a greater emphasis on education in the colonies
Preachers of the Great Awakening in 18th century America would have been most likely to give a sermon focusing on
repenting of ones sins
How were Europeans able to develop large areas of land in the Americas?
Had many African slaves to do the hard work.
With which religious movement is George Whitefield MOST closely associated?
What was a major consequence of the Seven Year's War (French and Indian)?
expense of fighting the war led Britain to tax the colonies directly for the first time.
What happened as a result of the Treaty of Paris of 1763?
the British gained Florida and Canada and became the sole power in North America.
Describe the effect of the British policy of salutary neglect on the colonies
The colonies developed an attitude for self-governing
What was the colonial response to the Stamp Act? Americans were opposed to the
Many American colonists believed the Stamp Act (1765) represented a form of
taxation without representation
Which goods did Great Britain pass a direct tax on the led to boycotts and a group of delegates to meet to determine how to protest it?
newspaper, wills and licenses.
The "Sons of Liberty" were formed in the 1760s primarily as a reaction to
the Stamp Act
These American women were famous for boycotting British goods by making homespun cloth and for finding substitutes for tea and sugar (all heavily taxed by the British). Who were these women?
Daughters of the Liberty
In the years leading up to the American Revolution, why were the Committees of Correspondence important?
Were the first attempt to maintain close political cooperation among all colonists.
How did Britain respond to the Boston Tea Party?
the intolerable acts
How would a Native American living in the Ohio River valley region felt the Proclamation of 1763 that forbade colonists from entering the region?
Agreed with it.
How did colonists react to the Proclamation of 1763? What was the significance of Thomas Paine's pamphlet Common Sense?
Opposed the ban, presented the case for independence.
In the publication Common Sense, Thomas Paine argued that the American colonies should
end their political relationship with Britain.
Which document was influenced by John Locke's theory that all people have basic natural rights?
Declaration of Independence
John Locke was influential to the drafting of the Declaration of Independence because _____
Presented a theory that rulers needed the consent of citizens inspired and justified the document
Which European philosopher proposed that dividing the government into three branches would prevent any one person or group from gaining total control?
What is listed in the largest section of the Declaration of Independence?
Thomas Jefferson relied on the writings of which historical figure when drafting the Declaration of Independence?
What role did France play in the American Revolution?
Allied itself with colonists.
Why did the British believe they would have greater success fighting the Americans in the South than they did in New England and the Middle Colonies?
More colonists loyal to the king in the south.
During the Revolutionary War, how did Benjamin Franklin serve?
As a diplomat to France
As a military leader during the American Revolution, what was one of George Washington's toughest challenges?
Create a professional military from small state militias
Why was George Washington an effective military commander?
Preserved the army through his leadership skills.
The assistance of the French was given to the American Continental Army after which battle?
Which event is described in the box?
*Harsh winter of 1777-1778
*Scarce food and clothing
*Marquis de Lafayette
*Baron Freidrich von Steuben
*Military test of will-power
Winter at Valley Forge.
What was one of the central reasons for the military success of the United States in the American Revolution?
Financial and Military assistance from France.
Why is the Battle of Yorktown significant in American Revolution?
British Army surrendered after being surrounded there, marking the end of the war.
How was the geographical location of Yorktown pivotal to General Washington's decisive victory there?
It was on the coast, allowed the French to set up a blockade
The Treaty of Paris of 1783:
Granted the United States independence from England
What was the first government of the United States?
The Articles of Confederation
Along with skirmishes like Shays' Rebellion, what did weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation led to?
a call for a stronger central government.
Shays' Rebellion was an indication that the central government was too weak under which document?
the Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation represented the Americans' distrust of whom?
a strong central government
Give an example of a WEAKNESS in the Articles of Confederation
There was no separation of powers.
What do Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison tried to argue through the Federalist Papers?
in order to control factions, there should be a large, powerful government with checks and balances
Why did the Anti-Federalists push for the addition of a Bill of Rights to the United States Constitution?
They believed that people's liberties needed protection from the government.
What was the Three-fifths Compromise?
allowed slaves to be partially counted as part of the U.S. population.
What do the Great Compromise and the Three-Fifths Compromise have in common?
representation of states in Congress.
At the Constitutional Convention, what does the Great Compromise essentially establish?
a bicameral legislature for the federal government.
The fact that the economies of the southern colonies were primarily based on agriculture while the northern colonies were not directly caused conflict over which issue at the constitutional convention of 1787?
debate over slavery
The fact that the Constitution denies the federal government several powers indicates that the framers believed strongly in which principle?
By limiting the power of the National Government, the Bill of Rights ultimately serves as
Protector of individual and state rights
Why would the following proposed bills be unlikely to ever become laws in the United States?
Bill of rights protects these rights
No person may carry a firearm.
No publishing of documents criticizing the government
State's may not make their own laws
The U.S. Constitution establishes a federal system of government. What is a federal system of government?
Power is divided between national and state governments.
What is the highest legal authority in the United States government?
Why did political parties appear in the United States shortly after the Constitution was adopted?
Differences arose over political and economic issues.
How did the Whiskey Rebellion affect George Washington's Presidency?
Forced him to use an army to put down domestic unrest.
Why was George Washington's presidency so important?
Set the precedents for future presidents.
The Legislative branch may enact laws, the Executive branch may veto laws, and the Judicial branch may _____________.
Decide that a law is unconstitutional
What contributed to the differences in the economic development of the mid-Atlantic, New England, and Southern colonies?
What rights are protected by the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution?
Speech, religion, assembly, press
Which famous document begins with the following lines? "We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity...."
Which type of state (large or small) would have been MOST LIKELY to favor the Virginia Plan?
Why was Napoleon prompted to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States?
he needed to raise money to wage war with Great
Why were Meriwether Lewis and William Clark important to westward expansion?
explored and mapped out the area received in the Louisiana Purchase
What purchase did Thomas Jefferson negotiate that demonstrated his keen diplomatic skills?
the Louisiana Purchase
How did British naval vessels help instigate the War of 1812?
They routinely seized American crew and cargo illegally
What was the period immediately after the War of 1812 known as?
the Era of Good Feelings
Why was the Erie Canal significant for early America?
connected New York's ports to the western interior for increased commerce
Why is the Monroe Doctrine important to American history?
showed that the United States would protect the Americas
The Monroe Doctrine can be viewed as a moral opposition to what practice?
Which idea of Eli Whitney's had major consequences for the production of other goods, even to this day?
The invention of the cotton gin is an example of the types of technological improvements associated with which historical era?
Which technological development led to an increased demand for slaves in the United States during the early-to mid 1800s?
the cotton gin
Who was Fredrick Douglas?
Former slave and abolitionist
Temperance, abolitionism, and public schools are all what type of movements?
began as part of social reform movements
Abolitionism was a reform movement dedicated primarily to trying to eliminate which social problem?
What was the main purpose of the Seneca Falls Conference?
To argue that women deserved to be socially and politically equal to men
What do the Manifest Destiny and the Monroe Doctrine both relate to what idea?
issues related to United States territory
Americans used the concept of Manifest Destiny to justify ______________.
westward expansion by claiming they had to spread democracy
How did the the Grimke sisters feel about the oppression of blacks and slavery?
women should sympathize with the oppression of blacks and thus oppose slavery
How did William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and the Grimke Sisters feel about slavery?
Wanted it abolished in all states
In the period before the Civil War, according the principle of popular sovereignty, who could determine whether or not a territory allowed slavery?
the people from the territory
When the admission of new states threatened the balance of free and slave states in the Union, which Kentucky Senator drew up the "Missouri Compromise" in 1820?
Where did the Missouri Compromise allow slavery?
It allowed slavery only in Missouri and western territories south of Missouri
What effect on territory did the U.S. war with Mexico have?
The United States acquired territory that eventually became Arizona and New Mexico
Which treaty ended the United States' war with Mexico?
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Why was the Wilmot Proviso controversial in 19th Century America?
It tried to prevent slavery in territories America won in the Mexican War
What were The Missouri Compromise, Wilmot Proviso, and Compromise of 1850 designed to do?
deal with the issue of slavery in new territories
The items in this list are territorial issues that are related directly to which compromise?
Compromise of 1850
What did the efforts of Nat Turner in 1831 cause?
southern states to take harsher measures to prevent slave uprisings
.Which abolitionist was known as "Black Moses"?
Describes the social and political philosophy about slavery of Harriet Tubman, the Underground Railroad "conductor".
Slaves should escape slavery using whatever means were available to them
Which law is being described here?
-repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820
-was created as a means of constructing a transcontinental railroad
-created two new states in the middle of the United States
-let the states decide whether or not to allow slavery
Why did the Supreme Court's Dred Scott decision increased tensions between slave and free states?
A slave's status of enslavement would now be recognized within free states
Who authored Uncle Tom's Cabin?
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Who believes that "Until mankind recognizes that all men have the right to be born free, society will never warrant being called civilized. No matter what the color of a man's skin, he is entitled to liberty, and if it takes blood to gain it, so be it!"
Why was Harper's Ferry, Virginia, significant in the Antebellum Era?
It was the site of a failed slave rebellion in October of 1859
What was Abraham Lincoln's official position on slavery when he was elected president in 1860?
He wanted to prevent slavery from expanding to new territories
What event finally prompted South Carolina to secede from the Union?
Election of Abraham Lincoln
What was Abraham Lincoln's primary goal as President?
preserve the Union
The Gettysburg Address primarily expressed President Abraham Lincoln's desire to do so what?
his determination to maintain the Union
Which decision by President Lincoln was controversial because it involved limiting people's civil liberties?
his suspension of habeas corpus
Union General Winfield Scott's plan to defeat the Confederacy included a naval blockade of southern ports, gaining naval control of the Mississippi River, and invading the rebellious southern states. By what name was General Scott's strategy known?
the Anaconda Plan
In terms of position in government and role in decision-making, Jefferson Davis shared the most similarities with whom?
What was the Confederate states most important advantage entering the Civil War?
only had to fight a defensive war and outlast the Unions will to fight in order to win
During the Civil War, what strategic advantage did Confederate control of Fort Sumter offer?
It protected Charleston from Union Naval attacks
List three important results of the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861.
The Union realized that the war would not end quickly and easily
Why was The Battle of Antietam important in the Civil War?
prevented Confederate forces from taking Washington D.C. and encouraged Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
Which Civil War battle resulted in the Union gaining strategic control of the Mississippi River?
Which Civil War battle was significant in that the Union army was able to halt Robert E. Lee's invasion of the north?
How did General William T. Sherman mainly contribute to the Union's victory in the Civil War?
He marched from Atlanta to Savannah and destroyed a main supply-line for the rebels
How practical was the Emancipation Proclamation? What effect did it actually have?
The actual effects of the Proclamation were more symbolic than practical
Beyond abolishing slavery in the United States, the Civil War was a pivotal event in American history because it settled the question of ___________ ___________ once and for all.
established the supremacy of the national government over state governments
Which was a MAJOR difference between Andrew Johnson's view of Reconstruction and the view of the Radical Republicans?
How quickly southern states should be re-admitted to the Union
How did President Andrew Johnson's approach to Reconstruction compare to the Republicans' approach in Congress?
What are three key parts of Johnson's Presidential Reconstruction?
Desired to rebuild the Union as quickly as possible, Opposed to drastic punishments of the south, Issued dozens of pardons to southern rebels
What was the primary goal of colleges like Morehouse College in the 1800s?
provide advanced education to former slaves and blacks in the south
How did the 14th Amendment forever shape post-Civil War America?
making former slaves official citizens
The 13th Amendment ended which practice?
What were "The Black Codes"?
state laws passed against Southern blacks in reaction to Reconstruction
Describe some characteristics of the Ku Klux Klan.
Founded in 1865 by members of the Confederate Army, Strongly Opposed to Racial Equality, Used violent tactics to express their beliefs
What effect did the end of Reconstruction have on African Americans?
It led to oppression because southern states had more sovereignty and used it to implement laws, things like Jim Crow literacy test, and poll taxes
How did the impeachment of Andrew Johnson affect Reconstruction?
It accelerated Reconstruction because Johnson became compliant to the Republicans
Which event helped bring about the end of Reconstruction?
The bargain allowing Rutherford B. Hayes to become President
Why was Hiram Rhodes Revels a key figure during the Reconstruction era?
he was the first African-American elected to a seat in the U.S. Congress
The expansion of the railroad industry in the 1800's was a positive development for whom?
other industries, like steel, who provided resources to the railroad companies
What helped to further the Westward Expansion in the United States after 1865?
What group of immigrants arrived in large numbers on the U.S. west coast for the primary purpose of working on the Transcontinental Railroad in the 19th century?
What was an unintended consequence of the use of Chinese labor to build railroads in the west?
There was a major social backlash against the Chinese
What was a result of the creation of monopolies and establishment of trusts by industrial leaders of the late 1800s?
were able to accumulate vast amounts of wealth
How did Standard Oil attain its immense wealth?
It consolidated power by taking over its competitors and becoming a monopoly
in the 19th century, John D. Rockefeller was MOST associated with what company?
Andrew Carnegie was a "captain" of which industry?
Which Thomas Edison invention had a major impact on American lives?
What would be an immediate effect of the invention and mass production of the light bulb?
longer factory hours for all workers
How did the immigration into the United States change in the late 19th century?
Most immigrants now came from unstable parts of Southern and Eastern Europe
How did Sitting Bull greatly affect relations between Native Americans and the United States?
attacking miners and battling Custer at Little Bighorn
What influenced the growing societal and economic unrest of the late-1800s?
widening income gap between industrial laborers and factory bosses
What was the main cause of the Pullman strike of 1894?
Pullman's reducing workers' wages without reducing prices in the company town
What is significant about the end of the Pullman Strike?
demonstrated the US government's pro-business alliances
Why did businessmen during the Gilded Age often favor relaxed immigration laws?
valued cheap and relatively unskilled labor
During the late 19th century, how did the urban political "machines" and those that ran them conduct business?
Promised business contracts, government jobs, and money for the poor immigrants in exchange for votes
What was American policy towards Native Americans in the late 19th century?
Most Native Americans were practically forced to relocate to reservations
What is the 1890 event that is generally considered to be the last major violent Indian conflict in North America?
Wounded Knee Massacre
What role did Samuel Gompers play in the growth of labor unions?
American Federation of Labor