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biological influences on organisms within an ecosystem; birds, trees, mushrooms, bacteria
physical (nonliving) factors that shape ecosystems; temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind, nutrient availability, soil type, sunlight
when organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource at the same place at the same time
competitive exclusion principle
no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
summarazes average temperature and precipitation at a given location during each month of the year
climate within a small area that differs significantly from the climate of the surrounding area
ecosystem in which water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface of the soil for at least part of the year
tiny pieces of decaying plants and animals that provide food for organisms at the base of the estuary food web
temperate-zone estuaries dominated by salt-tolerant grasses above the low tide-line and by seagrasses under water
intertidal zone, coastal ocean, open ocean
three main vertical divisions of the ocean based on the depth and distance from the shore
primary structure made of skeletons of coral animals; all growth occurs within 40 meters of surface
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