Terms in this set (69)
How did religion work as a unifying force?
Feudalism and the manor system created division among people.
What was Canon Law?
Church Law, in matters such as marriage and religious practice.
What was the two harshest punishments handed down from the church?
1: Excommunication 2: Interdict
What was the Holy Roman Empire?
Roman empire of the German Nation. Strongest State.
What was Lay Investiturse
Ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed church officials.
What was the Showdown at Canossa?
Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV was standing three days bare-headed in the snow, in order to reverse his excommunication by Pope Gregory VII.
What was the Concordat of Worms?
A agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V
What three issues worried reformers about religion during this time period?
1: Many village priests married and had families . Such marriage was against church ruling. 2: Bishops sold positition in the church, a practice called simoney. 3: Using the practice of lay investiture, kings appointed church bishops. Church reformers believed the church alone should appoint bishop.
What was the Curia and what were its duties?
Pope's group of advisers. Acted as court. Developed Canon Law decided cases based on these laws.
What were tithes used for?
To collect taxes.
Who and what initiated the Crusades or "Holy War"
Pope Urban II
List four goals of the Crusades?
1: Economic 2: Social 3: Political 4: Religious Motives
What problems did the Crusaders face on the first Crusade?
They were ill - Prepared, knew nothing of geography.
What was the outcome of the First Crusade?
They captured Jerusalem.
What happend in the Second Crusade?
Armies straggled home in defeat. Shocked to learn Jerusalem had fallen to a Kurdish.
What were the Middle Ages?
The gradual decline of the Roman Empire ushered in an era European history.
What did Germanic invaders cause disruption of trade to do?
Merchants faced invasion from both sea and land.
What did Germanic invader cause downfall of cities to do?
With the fall of the Roman Empire, cities were abandoned as centers of administration.
What did Germanic invaders cause populations shifts to do?
Roman centers of trade and government collapsed, nobles retreated to rural areas and broke apart.
What did Germanic invaders cause learning to do?
Learning declined, Germanic invaders who stormed Rome could not read or write.
What did Germanic invaders cause language to do?
Common language was lost, as Germanic speaking peoples mixed with the Roman population. Latin changed.
What was the difference between Roman society and Germanic communities concerning the concept of government?
Loyalty to public government and written law had
unified Roman, unlike Romans, Germanic peoples
lived in small communities that were governed by unwritten rules and traditions.
Who was Clovis and how did he use Christianity with his military?
Clovis prayed before the battles and the tide of the battle
shifted and the Franks won. Afterward, Clovis and 3,000 of his warriors asked a
bishop to baptize them.
Clovis was the first king of the Franks.
What is a monastery? What did a person do at a monastery?
Monasteries are religious communities.
Men gave up their private possession and devoted their lives to serving God. Became monks.
Women lived in convents and became nuns.
How were monasteries tied to education?
They opened schools, maintained libraries and copied books.
What change did Gregory I make to the papacy?
What did papacy become?
Broadened the authority of the papacy.
Papacy became a worldly, power involved in politics. Used churches revenues to raise armies, repair roads, and help poor.
What is a "mayor of the palace?"
An official known as the major domo.
What powers did Charles Martel's have? What did he do?
He had changes of the royal household and estate. He led armies and made policy. Ruled the kingdom.
What was the Carolingian Dynasty? How did they get their power?
The family would rule the Frank 751-987.
Pepin made an exchange, the pope anointed him "king by the grace of God."
How did Charlemagne build such a great empire?
He conquered new lands, Charlemagne spread Christianity. Reunited western Europe for the first time. He led his armies against surrounded enemies.
Where were the Vikings from?
The North, Scandinavia.
What was the goal of Muslim attackers?
To conquer and settle in Europe.
What was the result of the attacks by the Vikings, Magyars and Muslims?
It caused widespread disorder and suffering.
What is feudalism?
Feudalism was based on rights and obligations.
What are Lords?
Lords are landowners.
What are Fief?
Fief granted land.
What is an vassal?
A person receiving a fief. (land)
What are knights?
Mounted horsemen who pledge to defend their Lords land in exchange for land.
What are serfs?
People who could not lawfully leave the place where they were born.
What are manor?
Lord's estate or land.
What are some reasons peasants paid a high price to work on the Manor?
The lord provided the serfs with housing,
farmland, and protection from bandits. at least a few days of labor each
week and a certain portion of their grain.
How did the saddle and stirrup help change the way warfare was conducted in Europe?
The saddle kept a warrior firmly seated on a moving horse. Stirrup enabled him to ride and handle heavier weapons.
How did feudal lords raise private armies? What was the obligation of a knight to a lord?
In exchange for military service, Feudal lords used their abundant resource. (land)
Kings obligation was to serve in battles.
What is chivalry? How did Chivalry affect a knight's daily life?
A complex set of ideals demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of 3 masters.
Failed to meet all these high standards treated the lower classes brutally.
What was life for a noblewomen in the feudal society?
Could inherit an estate from husband played a key role in defending castles. Limited, held little property.
What was life for a peasant women in the feudal society?
Unchanged for centuries. Performed endless labors around the house. Poor and powerless.
The third crusade ended in a truce allowing the Muslims to control what city?
What was the inquisition?
A court held by the chruch to suppress Heresy.
What was the major factor in the increased production of food b/t 800-1200?
Farmers in Europe began using a harness that crossed the horses chest. What animal did horses replace?
What were Guilds?
An Organization of individuals in the same business.
What was the Commercial Revolution?
An expansion of trade and business.
What advancement did the Muslim Connection bring to western Europe?
A huge new body of knowledge.
Britain was being battered by waves of Danish Vikings during which time?
Who claimed the crown after Edward died?
King William the conqueror.
What were the goals of the kings in this time period?
Hold and add to their land and to strengthen their own power over nobles and churches.
Collecting taxes, settling lawsuits, and punishing crimes were all handled by what courts?
The royal courts of justice.
What was common law?
England's royal judges formed a unified body of law.
The document that guaranteed certain basic political rights.
This man was an undistinguished duke from Middle France. Who was he?
Why did the Capetians do so well?
Time and geography along with the growth of royal power.
Philip II was only 15 when he took power. Of what bloodline was he?
What honor was given to Henry's grandson, Louis IX?
Ideal king and was made a saint by the Catholic Church.
Louis IX made what government body?
Church leaders where part of what estate?
Great lords where part of what estate?
Commoners, wealthy land owners, and merchants are all part of what estate?
What was the Great Schism?
A split in the church.
The plague was spread by...?
Rats that were infested with Bacillus.