American Foreign Policy

What was Washington's view of what US foreign policy ought to be? Why did he argue that nations should avoid antipathies and passionate attachments toward other nations? What should guide US foreign policy? Why?
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Washington suggests that the United States should stay away from permanent allies with other nations. He also believes to not have long lasting enemies because that could be disruptive to the United States as well. The great rule of American foreign policy should be extending our commercial relations to have with them as little political connection as possible.
Because a nation which indulges toward another "an habitual hatred or an habitual fondness is in some degree a slave"...."Antipathy in one nation against another disposes each more readily to offer insult and injury", which usually leads to disputes and wars. A passionate attachment of one nation for another always leads to unrealistic thought of common interests (even there is no real common interest exists) and makes the country easily make concessions to the other. It gives to ambitious, corrupted, or deluded citizens facility to betray or sacrifice the interests of their own country. The U.S. should insist its national interests as the priority in developing a foreign policy. It should build a relationship with other countries in good faith and harmony, while benefiting its interests.
The central theme of the Monroe Doctrine was that the United States was not going to tolerate any more colonization by European nations.
He justifies this argument by saying the US citizens cherish liberty and happiness and do not want to get involved in conflicts that do not affect them. He says that if the Western powers do threaten to colonize other parts of the world, force might be needed.
Contributions: "America, with the same voice which spoke herself into existence as a nation, proclaimed to mankind the inextinguishable rights of human nature, and the only lawful foundations of government." ... And the U.S. has been respecting the independence of other nations. It held honest friendship of equal freedom and of generous reciprocity with other countries.
Adams believes that the U.S. policy in supporting Latin American independence based on the Monroe Doctrine should be a self-determined. The U.S. solely dominates the decision making in its policy towards Latin Americans. It is not a moral obligation to Latin America, but a right of the U.S. to choose intervene or not.
Washington: very few cases;
i.e. the U.S. emphasizes its bilateral trade relationship with China while pays less attention on domestic human rights abuses and political suppression in China.
Monroe Doctrine: the U.S. embargo of Cuba during the Cuba Missile Crisis.
Adams: American's promotion of democracy around the world.
It was the result of ideology and circumstances of power. The Marxian ideology stressed the innate antagonism between capitalism and socialism. Under the circumstance of power consolidation over three decades, the Soviet leaders also had a strong sense of insecurity and endeavored to secure its power against forces at home. But once capitalism was eradicated in Russia, the Soviet leadership needed to stress the menace of foreign capitalism to justify their pursuit of absolute authority.
According to X, the US should consider the Soviet Union as a rival in the political arena and enter a policy of containment designed to confront the Soviets with unalterable counterforce at every point where they indicated signs of encroaching upon the interests of a peaceful and stable world.
Because the Soviet Union was the weaker party with a highly flexible policy and had a society containing inherent deficiency that would eventually weaken its own power.
US underestimated the power of nationalism that motivated Vietcong; It misjudged friend and foe during the war; it failed to recognize the limitation of modern weapon; it got involved war without drawing Congress and the American people into a full discussion; the executive branch failed to deal with loss of life effectively.
It failed to serve peace as the war caused large casualties and failed to stop the spread of communism; it eroded US power as the interests at stake were not worth the commitments needed; it violated US principles as US soldiers killed innocent civilians; it damaged prosperity as it caused high unemployment and high inflation (stagflation).
Vietnam had impacts on presidential-congressional relations, media, and public opinions...
The Congress became more assertive and less deferential, and the presidential power was constrained by the War Powers Resolutions. The War Powers Resolution limited presidential power via two provisions. One was to tighten up requirements for the president to consult with Congress before or at least soon after sending US troops in any situation other than a genuine national emergency. The other established "sixty day clock", which means the president has to withdraw US forces after sixty days unless Congress permits an extension.Vietnam trauma refers the change of the public's mindset due to the Vietnam War. After the war, most of the public considered the involvement in Vietnam a mistake, and they became more isolationist and less internationalist.
Détente means a "relaxation of tensions". It refers to the efforts in the 1970s to get out of the Cold War and improve relations between the US and the Soviet Union. Shift in all 4Ps led to Detente. Both US and the Soviet Union shared interests in stabilizing Europe and economic sectors of agriculture and energy.
Détente is composed of new agreements that allowed increased contact between West and East Berlin, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe and the adoption of the Helsinki Accords of 1975, the strategic idea of mutually assured destruction, the signing of the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty and trade agreements. MAD refers to mutually assured destruction. It is considered as potentially stabilizing mechanism. It means that neither country will resort to using nuclear weapon because neither side could launch a first strike without risking devastation in a second strike. MAD made both sides have an interest in nuclear arms control. SALT refers to Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty. It set limits on strategic nuclear weapons based on a formula known as "essential equivalence", whereby the Soviets were allowed to have a large quantity of missiles while US had technological advantages that allowed it to put more bombs on each missile. SALT made both sides be assured of deterrence. It also limited anti-ballistic missile defense systems.
Why did détente fail?Soviet's invasion of Afghanistan is one of the reasons. Besides, there are two deeper reasons: 1) the détente just stabilized the rivalry but did not put an end to rivalry 2) US Third World policy was still confusing and contradictory. Its domestic politics also grew more and more divisive.What did Carter emphasize in his foreign policy?Carter emphasized on human rights.What was the Nixon shock? Why was it significant?Nixon shock refers to Nixon's announcement that US unilaterally depreciated the dollar, suspended its convertibility to gold, and imposed 10% special tariff on imports. It is significant for three reasons: 1) US stopped granting economic concessions to its allies and started to have economic conflicts with its allies. 2) The US abandonment of the gold standard crumbled the international monetary system based on fixed exchange rates and the gold standard. 3) US reopened the debate on the free trade versus protectionism again.What is OPEC? What caused the OPEC shocks of 1973 and 1979? What effect did they have on America?OPEC is Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. It was founded in 1960 and initiated oil embargoes and oil price hikes. In 1973, all members of OPEC agreed on 25% production cuts and full oil embargoes targeted at the US and the Netherlands for their support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War. In 1979, the Iranian Revolution disrupted oil supplies again. They raised oil price, fed unemployment, caused high inflation and double-digits interest rates, and increased trade deficit in US.What is the North South conflict? What is the NIEO? What did it call for? How is it different than the LIEO (Be specific)?North-South conflict refers to the conflict between the world developing countries (South) and industrialized countries (North). NIEO refers to New International Economic Order proposed by the South. It aimed to replace Liberal International Economic Order (LIEO), calling for higher prices for raw materials and commodities in the name of "justice and equity", new form of international "regulation and supervision", and even transfer of modern science and technology to developing countries.What is fast track authority?Fast track authority refers to the guarantee that any trade agreements the president negotiates and submits to Congress will receive expedited legislative consideration within ninety days, and under a special procedural rule the vote on that agreement will be approved or rejected with no amendments allowed.What was Reagan's approach to America's foreign policy in terms of peace, power, principles, and prosperity? What was the Reagan doctrine? The Weinberg criteria?According to Reagan, peace should be achieved through strength not negotiations, and American power had to be reasserted in all aspects. He considered the Soviet Union demonic enemy and endorsed classic American exceptionalism. Though the Reagan administrations ran huge budget and trade deficits, it managed to tame inflation and revive the economy. Reagan Doctrine called for taking a harder line on global containment and ousting communists who had come to power. The Weinberg criteria laid out six criteria that needed to be met for future uses of US military force. And it set a high threshold for when and how to use US military force.What was Reagan's policy towards Nicaragua?In order to show the credibility of US power, the Reagan administration provided extensive military aid, CIA assistance, and other support to the Nicaraguan contras who were against the communist-nationalist Sandinistas.What was the Iran Contra Scandal? What happened? Why was it illegal?It was a deal made by the Reagan administration officials to provide arms to Iran in exchange for Iran's help in getting the American hostages in Lebanon released. The profits from the arms sales would be used to fund the Nicaraguan contras, thus circumventing congressional prohibitions. It was an illegal and unconstitutional effort to get around Congress.What problems prevented the War Powers Resolution from being successful? How is the language of the War Powers Resolution ambiguous?WPR was considered as an infringement on the role of president. It was particularly true for Reagan who took a more assertive approach to the presidency. The problem lies in the ambiguity of its legal and legislative language. For example, it provided ambiguous definitions for the mission of the US Navy, the level of attack that can be considered as hostilities, and the possible consultation.What is the US triumphalism theory of why the Cold War ended peacefully? How does it explain the peaceful end of the Cold War?The US triumphalism theory gives US and particularly President Reagan credit for pursuing a tough and assertive foreign policy that pushed the Soviets into collapse. It's a cumulative effect of foreign policies over the decades. Thus the Soviets can't match up US power that was rebuilt and reasserted by Reagan. US principle of democracy and capitalism also played a role in US triumph.What are Revisionist and Gorbachev leadership theories of why the Cold War ended peacefully (Be sure to know all of them)? How do they explain the peaceful end of the Cold War?Revisionist and Gorbachev theories gave credit to Gorbachev. According to the theories, Gorbachev demonstrated a new perspective based on openness and restructuring. The choice he made ended the Cold War peacefully. Moreover, revisionists gave credit to American and European peace movements. They tempered Reagan's hardline policies and bonded various groups together to exchange ideas, maintain communications, and build common grounds. Some international actors also play a role in ending the Cold War. Some also gave credit to nuclear deterrence which ensuring the avoidance of a major-power war.According to Lake, what are America's core concepts? What are the four defining aspects of the post Cold War period?Core Concepts: Democracy and Market Economy Four defining aspects: First, America's core concepts are more broadly accepted than ever; since 1970s, most countries in the world have adopted democracy (values and political system) and market economy. Second, the U.S. is the sole dominant power in the world with the strongest military, largest economy and its most dynamic, multiethnic society. Third, there is an explosion of ethnic conflicts; domestic conflicts increase, international conflicts are in wane. Fourth, the pulse of the world had accelerated dramatically and human events are changed by the innovation of technologies.According to Lake, what is a policy of enlargement? Why should that policy replace containment? What are the four components of enlargement? Why is each component important to enlargement?The policy of enlargement is a strategy focuses on promoting democracy and market economics around the world. Its core belief is that as democracy and market economics spread around other countries, the U.S. will be more secure, prosperous and influential, and the world will be more humane and peaceful. This is policy asks Enlargement should replace containment because: (1) the Cold War is ended, the U.S. does not need to fight aggressor and contain communism as before; (2) many changes in the Post-Cold War era (the four aspects), which requires the U.S. to replace containment with enlargement; (3) the policy is consistent with the principles of different administrations since Woodrow Wilson that promote democracy and market economics will eventually protect American interests and security. First, the core of enlargement is strengthening the community of major market democracies. It is important because the revival of American democratic system and economics and of other core market democracies (Europe, Canada and Japan) will consolidate America's global strength and attract other countries in the world to pursue democracy and market economics. Second, help foster and consolidate new democracies and market economies. It is important because by doing so, the U.S. can turn former enemies into new partners, reduce threats of nuclear weapons or potential refugee flows, thus secure the U.S. and its friends and allies. Third, counter the aggression and support the liberalization of state hostile to democracy and markets. It is important because rules in many undemocratic regimes fear losing power and thus refuse reform and suppress their people's effort to pursue democracy. The U.S., as the leader of democracy and market economics, has the moral responsibility to help those people to liberate themselves and isolate those undemocratic regimes. Fourth, pursue a humanitarian agenda not only by providing aid, but also by working to help democracy and market economics take root in regions of greatest humanitarian concern.According to Lake, how should the US deal with "backlash states" like Iraq? Why is it important to define a strategy of enlargement?Isolate them diplomatically, militarily, economically, and technologically. Stress intelligence, counterterrorism, and multilateral export controls. Apply global norms regarding weapons of mass destruction and ensure their enforcement. Because American's effort in Somalia and Bosnia raises controversies and debates on multilateralism, and it is necessary to clarify the policy and find a balance between principle (foreign policy purpose) and pragmatism (means).What is isolationism? What is internationalism?Isolationism is a school argues that a country should engage in a foreign policy in which the country minimizes its involvement in world affairs. Internationalism is a school advocates that a country should engage itself in international affairs and strengthen greater economic, political and security cooperation between different countries to achieve world peace and common goods. As for the U.S., internationalism also means the U.S. to play an important role in shaping international order, maintaining international peace and promoting democracy and market economy around the world (especially after WWII).What was Washington's advice for America's foreign policy? Prior to the Cold War, when was the US isolationist? Internationalist? Why?Do not hold permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world. Avoid any entanglement in the Old World (Europe) affairs. The Spanish-American War of 1898. Because Theodore Roosevelt implemented the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine and try to maintain a proper order in America and become a world police. Right after the WWI, Woodrow Wilson was inclined toward internationalism and tried to established the U.S. -led League of Nations.What is the mobilization-demobilization pattern of the US military prior to the Cold War? Why did this pattern occur?The U.S. didn't maintain a large standing military force in peaceful time. It usually conducts massive mobilization on the verge of war, and rapidly demobilizes the army after the war. Building up and maintaining a large standing army is very expensive and it is unnecessary in peaceful time. In war time, the government usually increases its controls over different sectors of economics and sets up new governmental economic bureaucracies, devoting most resources and money to support a war, which provides an economic basis to maintain a large military force. Once the war is over, these bureaucracies and war-time policies were revoked, and it is difficult to support a huge army.What is American exceptionalism? Manifest destiny? How did these two concepts affect America's foreign policy?American exceptionalism holds that the U.S. has a uniqueness and special virtue that ground its foreign policy in Principles much more than the foreign policies of other countries. Woodrow Wilson and FDR had American foreign policy in the spirit of American exceptionalism to protect democracies and people's freedoms (Four Freedoms) around the world. Manifest destiny is a term coined in 1845 that refers to the "right" claimed by the U.S. to continental expansion. The continental expansion led territorial disputes and the Mexico-American War in 1846-1848 and the annexation of Texas. Later, manifest destiny was invoked in a similar spirit as part of the justification for the Spanish-American War and the acquisition of colonies and quasi-colonies in the Pacific and the Caribbean.Has the US always pursued a "principled" foreign policy? What are examples of when the US has and has not?Not really. For example, in the sense of consistency, through much of the 19th and early 20th centuries, the U.S. was more opposed to social and political revolutions against undemocratic governments in Latin America. Also, the U.S. used to suppress pro-independence Filipino forces. Contradictions: massive killings and displacement of Native Americans. In addition, there have been times when principles have been less a genuine driving force than something of a cover story for other purposes. In the case of Panama, the U.S. support of Panama's independence from Columbia was for a more important purpose: build and use the Panama Canal.Why might one characterize the late 19th and early 20th century foreign policy of the US as imperialist? What does evidence from US foreign policy to Latin America indicate?In general, American foreign policy at the time had been geared to the defense of American capitalist interests and had its expansionist dimension. After suffering economic crises at home that set off under-consumption and over-production, the U.S. had been growing its interests in seeking new foreign markets, principally in Latin America. U.S. exports to L.A. and investments in local industries bloomed. Besides, the U.S. launched numerous military interventions in L.A. to defense foreign investments and other economic interests of American corporations and financiers. Examples: (1) United Fruit Company, and U.S. invasions in Nicaragua, Honduras, Haiti and Dominican Republic; (2) through the Platt Amendment, the U.S. ensure its special economic interests in Cuba. It actually reveals the complexity (and inconsistency) of American foreign policy, as well as the tensions among the 4Ps (Power, Prosperity, Peace, Principle). For most of the part, the U.S. played as a regional hegemon that exerts its Power largely as it saw fit, managing hemispheric Peace but on its own terms, and dominating economically for the sake of its own Prosperity. (Examples: little altruism feature in Monroe Doctrine; military, economic and political intervention in L.A. for economic interests; and Roosevelt Corollary: U.S. as the international police power.) During President Franklin Roosevelt's period, U.S. tried to be the good neighbor, true to its Principles, a benefactor to those in its hemispheric neighborhood, promoting democracy and respecting their equal rights and privileges as sovereign nations. (Examples: FDR repealed the Platt amendment, withdrew the Marines from Nicaragua and Haiti, settled a long dispute with Mexico, signed bilateral trade treaties and treaties of conciliation with many LA countries. In WWII, FDR struck mutual security deals to protect LA countries.)What is the Monroe Doctrine? What is the Roosevelt Corollary?Monroe Doctrine: the Doctrine was US foreign policy issued in 1823 regarding Latin American countries. It claimed that US would consider further efforts by European powers to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South American as acts of aggression. Meanwhile, US would interfere neither existing European colonies nor dependencies of any European powers. The Doctrine was used to justify American dominance as well as military interventions. Roosevelt Corollary: the Corollary was set forth in 1904, claimed for the U.S. the "international police power" to intervene when instability within a Latin American country risked creating the pretext for an Old World power (European powers) to act.) According to Jentleson, why did the US expand into Asia? What is the history of US foreign policy to Japan and China prior to World War 2?Trade and commerce was the main reason for US to expand into Asia. But America's sense of moral mission and power motive also play a role in its expansion. US Commodore Matthew Perry opened American trade with Japan in 1984. President Roosevelt successfully mediated the Russo-Japanese war and brokered a peace treaty favorable to Japan. In 1908, two signed the Root-Takahira Agreement to mutually recognize the status quo in the the Asia-Pacific region. Japan also sided with US during WW1. US extended its influence through the Open Door Policy of the 1980s in China. It formed a friendship with China when China's Nationalist leader Sun Yat-Sen appealed for assistance in 1921. But US-China relations deteriorated as US joined other foreign powers to intervene in China over an economic dispute in 1924. US resumed its friendship with the Nationalists in 1928 though Japan's 1931 invasion of Manchuria made limits of America's support clear.Prior to the Cold War, what has the relationship been between the Executive branch and Congress in regards to going to war?The relationship between the Executive branch and Congress in regards to going to war prior to the Cold War was very strained and surrounded with a lot of political controversy. This becomes evident in two examples; with the first taking place during the War of 1812. President James Madison's request for a Declaration of War took over three weeks for Congress to approve, and the decision for war barely passed through the House and Senate. The next example takes place during the Mexican War (1846-48). The main issue during this time was how the government was to approach the annexation of Texas. Rather than trying his luck with Congress, President John Tyler tried to secretly wage war against the Mexicans but was found out by a senator and denounced by Congress. It was only through a joint resolution that he was able to successfully annex Texas after an attempt for a treaty failed to pass Congress. Essentially these examples show that the relationship between Congress and the Executive Branch during this time was very mistrustful and was surrounded with a lot of controversy. The Executive branch tried to jump past the politics in Congress to speed up the process of going to war and as a result Congress shut down the attempts through the House of Representatives and the Senate.What is the tension between national security and individual rights? What are historical examples when the US has limited rights for national security purposes?The tension between the urgent need to safeguard the nation's security and the guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties ensconced in the Bill of Rights. Examples: Alien and Sedition Acts passed by Congress and signed by President John Adams in 1978; Espionage and Sedition Acts of 1917-18; Red Scare of 1919-20; the Japanese-American internments of 1942.Historically, which industries, regions, and parties have been in favor of tariffs? Which have been against?Northern industrialists have been in favor of tariffs as they seek to protect their infant industries; Northern and western farmers also favored high tariffs because they primarily relied on domestic market. Northeastern merchants have been against tariffs as their economic interests lay in imports and exports businesses. Southern plantation owners favored lower tariffs because their cotton and tobacco crops were in high demand in Europe.What are reciprocal trade agreements?The Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934 granted the president extensive authority to cut tariffs by as much as 50% if he could negotiate reciprocal cuts with other countries. It was believed Congress abdicated this key oversight function to protect itself from going protectionist.What is the orthodox explanation for the Cold War? The revisionist explanation?The orthodox view puts principal responsibility squarely on the shoulders of Josef Stalin and the Soviet Union. It argues that Stalin had determination to confront the Western democracies in every aspect: used the Red Army to make Eastern Europe Soviet's own sphere of influence; tried to subvert governments in Western Europe; blockaded West Berlin to force the ally force out; and spied in the U.S. Globally, the Soviet Union aided revolutions everywhere: supported the communists in China, Southeast Asia, and Latin America; helped start the Korean War; and supported anticolonial movement in Africa. The revisionist view argues that the U.S. also has its own responsibility of causing the Cold War. Some revisionists see the U.S. as seeking its own empire for Power and Prosperity and domination to serve American grand ambitions. Because of this neo-imperialist ambition, the U.S. used to intervened in Russian Revolution and fought against the Communists with other European forces from 1918-1919. Others see that U.S. miscalculated the true purpose of Soviet Union, which did not seek for territorial expansion, but preserved Poland and Eastern Europe as buffer zone (cordon sanitaire) to prevent future invasions of Soviet soil. And after WWII, there was a classic "security dilemma" between the U.S. and the Soviet Union: both side fear and do not trust the other side, and try to be aggressive. This loop of mutual distrust and aggression caused a persistent tension. If the U.S. had focused on reassurance and cooperation rather than deterrence and containment, there might not have been a Cold War.What is international institutionalism?A school of international relations theory that emphasizes both the possibility and the value of international institutions and other forms of cooperation for reducing the changes of war and other conflict.How did post WW2 policy makers draw from the lessons of the League of Nations when crafting the UN? What is the Security Council? General Assembly? Which has more influence? Who are permanent members of the UN Security Council? What is Article 43?There are two crucial errors of the LoN. First, the U.S. didn't join the League, thus American policy makers didn't have to take positions on potential threats to international peace and security in the 1930s. Without the U.S. membership, the League could not make substantial effect in maintaining international peace and security. Second, the League assigned each member equal power to its Assembly (all members) and its Council (four permanent and four rotated). Thus, it is difficult to vote for an agreement and all the decisions and resolutions passed by the League did not have any binding power on its members. These are two most important organs of the United Nations. The Security Council is the institution with the responsibility to maintain international peace and security. The General Assembly is main deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the UN. It serves as a forum for policy discussion for all the member states and other non-member political bodies. It has much less power than the Security Council. The resolutions passed by the GA do not have binding forces on member states. The Security Council is more powerful. Based on the UN Charter, only has it the power to authorize the use of military force, to order the severance of diplomatic relations, to impose economic sanctions, and to take other actions and make them binding on member states. It is made up by five permanent members (America, Soviet Union/Russia, Britain, France and China, aka P5). The P5 have the power to veto any Security Council action. Article 43 encourages world peace between countries. The article is monitored by the Security Council and requires all members of the U.N. to report if there needs to be any kind agreement or settlement between countries if conflict arises. The Security Council and its members negotiate all settlements between countries. By enforcing such a regulation, countries are able to have security, limit threats, and maintain international peace.Why did the UN end up being scaled back as compared to FDR's vision of it? What are examples of how the UN has been prevented from acquiring more influence?Two reasons: (1) As in the U.S., many Congressmen saw the UN was too powerful and a step too far toward "world government", threatening American state supremacy or sovereignty. The Congress didn't want American troops would be put under command of the UN. (2) the onset of the Cold War and the resultant priority given to consideration of Power. The UN became the battleground for power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union and their respective allies. Both sides frequently disagreed on many issues: the candidate of secretary-general, the membership of the General Assembly, and Security Council resolutions (thus veto each other's proposal). Article 43 had never concluded and the UN has never established a standing military force. The U.S. Senate refused to ratify the Genocide Convention and parts of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, worrying that the international courts' jurisdiction over American domestic affairs. President Truman's proposal of the Baruch Plan to the UN Atomic Energy Commission for establishing international control of nuclear weapons was rejected by the Soviet Union.What is nuclear deterrence? What is containment?Nuclear deterrence is a prevention of nuclear war by credibly communicating sufficient will and capacity to retaliate (with nuclear weapons) as a second strike if attacked. Containment is a Cold War doctrine whereby the U.S. would counter any attempt by the Soviet Union to expand its sphere of influence or to spread communism beyond its own borders.What was the Truman Doctrine? Marshall Plan? What was their historical significance?The Truman Doctrine is a U.S. commitment proclaimed in March 1947 to aid Greece and Turkey against Soviet and Soviet-assisted threats. It is the key basis for containment. It defined the U.S. foreign policy (leading the other non-Communism democracies in Europe and the rest of the world to against the Soviet Union and its communist allies) and the entire world after-WWII (and starts the Cold War). The Marshall Plan is the first major U.S. Cold War foreign-aid program, for the reconstruction of Western Europe after WWII and during the Cold War. It successfully helped Western Europe to restore its economics and prosper. Democratic governments in Western Europe maintained domestic stability and prevented the influence of Communism ideology from spreading on their lands.What is NATO? Why was it formed? What year was it formed?The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is the first peacetime military alliance in America history. Created in 1949, NATO ensured a military commitment to keeping U.S. troops in Europe and the collective defense pledge that the U.S. would defend European allies if they were attacked (by the Soviet Union and its communist allies).What two events in 1949 made the US escalate the Cold War?The Soviet Union developed its own nuclear weapons. The Chinese Communist Party claimed victory in the Chinese Civil War.What was NSC-68? How did it change America's foreign policy strategy?NSC-68 is an influential security-planning paper developed in early 1950 by President Truman's National Security Council. It called for three important shifts in U.S. strategy: globalization of containment, militarization of containment, and the development of the hydrogen bomb.How did the US integrate Japan and W. Germany into its Cold War alliances? What was the domino theory? What was the Eisenhower Doctrine?During the intensification of the Cold War in early 1950s, the U.S. ended its military occupation in Japan since 1945 and signed defense agreements with the Japanese government to deploy troops and build bases in Japan, helping defend Japan and maintaining American presence in Asia as part of the overall containment. At the same time, Japan had established a democratic regime and permanently limited its military force to "self-defense". As with Germany, the U.S. brought it into NATO for both strengthening the NATO alliance and putting Germany's power in check (keep the Germans down). If one country falls down to the Communists, the other neighbor countries will be taken over by the Communists subsequently. The Eisenhower Doctrine presents America's willingness to provide military support to any state in the Middle East against "overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by international communism."What was the Bay of Pigs Invasion? Why was it launched?It is a U.S.-engineered invasion of Cuba in 1961 by exiled forces seeking to overthrow Fidel Castro, the leader of the new communist regime, because the U.S. worried a communist Cuba would become the base of Communist and spread Communism in the American continent. The invasion failed miserably and is one of the most often cited cases of flawed executive-branch decision making.What was massive retaliation? Why was it potentially flawed?It is a nuclear strategy doctrine pursued during the Eisenhower administration whereby the U.S. threatened to resort to nuclear weapons to country any Soviet challenge anywhere of any kind.It was not credible because: if a threat was made and delivered on, there would be nuclear war (both side would suffer dramatic and unacceptable losses); if a threat was made and not delivered on, its credibility would be undermined.It was also very risky, since the Soviets had the nuclear advantage in space technology, ICBM as the platform to project and deliver nuclear attack that U.S. was not able to effectively defend, and outnumbering missiles and nuclear warheads (missile gap).What are ABC democrats? Why did the US adopt this approach? How is Vietnam an example of this approach?"ABC democrats" are those authoritarian regimes in the "Third World" with dictators garbed themselves in the rhetoric of freedom and democracy. Although it is criticized that supporting these ABC democrats was not consistent with American principles of promoting democracy, the U.S. government adopt this approach as a strategy within a broader and general goal: containing the Soviet Union and international communism. For this purpose, the U.S. rationale was to divide the other countries into two camps: either the communist or the other guy, and to support the later. It is a pragmatic policy. In Vietnam, since 1949, in order to prevent the Communist Ho Chi Minh and his party to take over the whole country, the U.S. support the former emperor Bao Dai at the beginning, and then the authoritarian leader Ngo Dinh Diem after 1954 (although later 1963 the Kennedy administration supported a coup to take Diem down because his unpopular repression on Buddhists).Why did the CIA help overthrow the Iranian Prime Minister in 1953?Because Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh had begun to nationalize foreign owned oil companies and to develop closer relations with the Soviet Union, severely harming the U.S. interests of concerns of Prosperity and Power.What was the Liberal Economic International Order? What were its three principle components? What were the goals of the GATT? IMF? And World Bank?It was the relatively open, market-based, free-trade system created after World War II with a minimum of tariffs and other government-initiated trade barriers, and with international economic relations worked out through negotiations. Three components: (1) a free trade system: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT, the later WTO in 1995); (2) an international monetary system based on fixed exchange rates and the gold standard and overseen by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and (3) an international lending and aid system, World Bank. GATT: eliminates protectionism in trade; tries to gradually promote and build an international free trade system through periodic "rounds" of negotiations; provides a mechanism for trade disputes and prevent trade wars; IMF: eliminates the competitive manipulation of currencies, and provides monetary stability essential for global economic growth by fixed exchange rates and the gold-standard.World Bank: provide aid for European reconstruction and developing countries' economic development.What are critiques of the LIEO?For one thing, many point out that the LIEO largely reinforced American economic dominance (or economic hegemony). Examples: the U.S. has a large voting share in both the IMF and the World Bank; in GATT negotiations, American positions prevailed more often than not; the emphasis on free market, open trade and minimal government intervention of the LIEO fit American lasissez-faire economic ideology, helping American dominated the world economy. Other critique focuses on corporate interests' drives U.S. foreign policy. Example: the U.S. intervention in Guatemala→for the interests of United Fruit Company; the intervention in Vietnam→fearing the fall of a succession of communist "dominoes" undermine global capitalism; Marshall Plan→rebuild European markets to generate demand for American exports and investments.What was the Cold War consensus? What were its "three fundamental components"? How was the President dominant in war powers, covert action, and international commitments? What is the NSC?It is the main pattern in U.S. foreign policy politics during the early stage of the Cold War. Presidential dominance over Congress; a vast expansion of the executive-branch foreign and defense policy bureaucracy, and a fervent anticommunism sentiment pervading public opinion, culminating in the scourge of McCarthyism. War Powers: in the Korean War, Truman never asked Congress for a declaration of War, and he argued he did not need any congressional approval for NATO deployments of American military forces. The trend continued under President Eisenhower (in the 1955 China-Taiwan crisis and in 1957 the potential crisis in the Middle East). Covert Action: the CIA was created with the onset of the Cold War and covert action was undertaken on a sustained, systematic basis. The Congress played the role more as booster and protectors than as checkers of covert action and balancers of president's power. International Commitments: the president increasingly uses of executive agreements rather than treaties, which required the approval and ratification of the Congress, for making significant international commitment. National Security Council is the president's principal forum for considering national security and foreign policy matters with senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials.What led to the Bay of Bigs fiasco?The Kennedy administration made decisions based on a plan which was poorly designed. The CIA covert action of supporting the Cuban dissidents was exposed by media report. The planners made mistakes in judging the Cuban domestic politics, thinking that Castro's regime is weak and unstable (which in fact it turned out that he was popular among people). CIA's intelligence failures also contributed to the fiasco.What were the dangers of Cold War consensus especially from the media, interest group, and the public?Media: media was in general the supporter for America's Cold War policy and it helped shaping of Cold War attitude. However, because of freedom of the press was unconstrained, it sometimes endangered the national security and covert action operation (the example of releasing prior information in the Bay of Pigs case), and severely undermined the reputation and governance of president (such as criticisms on Kennedy after the failed mission in Cuba). Interests group: anti-communism interests groups in favor of Cold War policies were very influential in American domestic politics, and they imposed huge pressures on president's foreign policy making. Example: when Kennedy proposed to reexamine the U.S.- Soviet Union relationship and mitigate the tension between the two countries (selling grain to the Soviets), agricultural and business interests groups criticized the president and oppose his policy. The Public: Because of the strong support of the anti-communism policy, there is a public sentiment of intolerance, suspicion and repression. The height of this sentiment was the appeal of McCarthyism in 1950s. The government was being purged. Accusations were hurled all over American society.What does Lippman find problematic with X's analysis of the Soviet Union?X's conclusion was based on optimistic prediction that the Soviet power was inherently weak and impermanent. It was wishful thinking and allowed no reserves for bad situations.Why according to Lippman is containment unsuited for the United States?Because under American Constitution system, the US government may not be able to have the resources and military power to apply counterforce at constantly changing points all over the world, while the Soviet system of government may achieve this. Besides, free and undirected American economy can't be administered according to the diplomatic plan that wages a war against a planned economy.What does a policy of containment threaten relations with European states? Why is this a danger for the US?A policy seeks to contain the Soviet Union by attempting to make unassailable barriers out of the Soviet's surrounding bordering states. Given limited resources and power, the efforts to develop such an unnatural alliance with these weak states would alienate US relations with its naturally allies with European states.According to Lippman, what is the difference between the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall approach? Why does Lippman favor the latter?The Truman Doctrine treated China and Europe as instruments of US policy for containing the Soviet Union, while the Marshall approach treated them as independent powers that US could help but should not control. The reason that Lippman favored the latter was that US did not have the resources and influences to control or govern those countries. US should provide assistance when the European governments attempt to recover their economies.What is Lippman's policy advice for how the US should deal with the Soviets? Why does he think this will work?Lippman advised to use diplomatic method to reach a settlement that led to withdrawal, and American power should be used to hold the Soviet Union military machine in check. It was because he believed there was the possibility of a settlement of the issues raised by the war and the balance of power would prevent rival powers to committing aggression.What is the falling domino principle in regards to the Cold War and Vietnam?Vietnam was the original case on which the domino theory was based. Based on President Eisenhower's speech in 1954, "you could have a beginning of a disintegration that would have the most propounding influences". If one country falls down to the Communists, the other neighbor countries will be taken over by the Communists subsequently. In the case of Vietnam, if the Communists reunifies Vietnam, they will use it as a base to export Communism revolutions and insurgencies in the other countries. (Jentleson 145)According to Johnson, why should the US fight in Vietnam? What are the reasons he outlines for why the US is in Vietnam?According to Johnson, US should fight in Vietnam because it is US moral responsibility to support the independent nation of South Vietnam that is attacked by North Vietnam, given North Vietnam is under strong influence of Communist China. The reason why US is in Vietnam is because US wants to keep its promise to support South Vietnam since 1954, to demonstrate US credibility, to strengthen world order, and to stop Communist China swallowing up Asia.What were Ball's objections to escalation of the Vietnam War by Johnson? Why did he argue it is more favorable to let Vietnam fall under communist control?According to Ball, if US escalated the war, the war will be long and protracted. If the war is protracted, the world opinion will conclude that the world's greatest power cannot defeat guerrillas in Asian jungle. Thus it will harm the credibility of American power.What is the Nixon Doctrine (three principles)? How was the Nixon Doctrine supposed to end the Vietnam War (i.e. What was the Vietnamization of the Vietnam conflict)?Nixon Doctrine: first, US will keep all of its treaty commitments. Second, US will provide a nuclear umbrella for its allies if they are under nuclear threat. Third, US will offer military and economic assistance to its allies, but the allies should take the primary responsibility of providing manpower for its national defense. US should strengthen the South Vietnamese to defend themselves when US leave.According to Nixon, why could the US not simply withdraw its troops from Vietnam?If US simply withdraw its troops from Vietnam, it will allow the Communists to slaughter South Vietnam as they did 15 years before, it will lead to a collapse of confidence in American leadership, and it will bring more war.What was Nixon's strategy for ending the Vietnam War?US should cooperate with South Vietnam, strengthening South Vietnamese forces and withdrawing US combat ground forces on an orderly-scheduled but not fixed timetable.According to Bush, what are the proliferation challenges facing the US?Iran has violated its Non-Proliferation Treaty safeguards obligations and refuses to provide objective guarantees that its nuclear program is solely for peaceful purposes. The DPRK continues to destabilize its region and defy the international community, now boasting a small nuclear arsenal and an illicit nuclear program in violation of its international obligations. Terrorists, including those associated with the al-Qaida network, continue to pursue WMD. Some of the world's supply of weapons-grade fissile material - the necessary ingredient for making nuclear weapons - is not properly protected. Advances in biotechnology provide greater opportunities for state and non-state actors to obtain dangerous pathogens and equipment.According to Bush, what is the first objective in regards to nuclear proliferation? What policies are proposed and why?The first objective requires closing a loophole in the Non-Proliferation Treaty that permits regimes to produce fissile material that can be used to make nuclear weapons under cover of a civilian nuclear power program. Policies: we have proposed that the world's leading nuclear exporters create a safe, orderly system that spreads nuclear energy without spreading nuclear weapons. Under this system, all states would have reliable access at reasonable cost to fuel for civilian nuclear power reactors. In return, those states would remain transparent and renounce the enrichment and reprocessing capabilities that can produce fissile material for nuclear weapons. Why: In this way, enrichment and reprocessing will not be necessary for nations seeking to harness nuclear energy for strictly peaceful purposes.According to Bush, what is the threat posed by Iran and North Korea?The Iranian regime hid many of its key nuclear efforts and its real intention of developing nuclear weapon from the international community; it refuses to negotiate in good faith and fails to comply with its international obligations by providing access to its nuclear sites for IAEA. Besides, the Iranian regime sponsors terrorism; threatens Israel; seeks to thwart Middle East peace; disrupts democracy in Iraq; and denies the aspirations of its people for freedom. North Korea is a bad-faith negotiation in the nuclear talk. It also counterfeits our currency; traffics in narcotics and engages in other illicit activities; threatens the South Korea with its army and its neighbors with its missiles; and brutalizes and starves its people.According to Bush, what is the second objective in regards to nuclear proliferation? What policies are proposed and why?The second nuclear proliferation objective is to keep fissile material out of the hands of rogue states and terrorists. Policies: to do this we must address the danger posed by inadequately safeguarded nuclear and radiological materials worldwide. The Administration is leading a global effort to reduce and secure such materials as quickly as possible through several initiatives including the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). Why: The GTRI locates, tracks, and reduces existing stockpiles of nuclear material. This new initiative also discourages trafficking in nuclear material by emplacing detection equipment at key transport nodes.According to Bush, what are US deterrence and defense policies in regards to nuclear proliferation?The U.S. should strengthen deterrence by developing a New Triad composed of offensive strike systems (both nuclear and improved conventional capabilities); active and passive defenses, including missile defenses; and a responsive infrastructure, all bound together by enhanced command and control, planning, and intelligence systems.According to Bush, what are the lessons to be learned from the Iraq War in regards to proliferation?First, intelligence must improve; second, there will always be some uncertainty about the status of hidden programs; third, the strategy of bluff, denial, and deception is a dangerous game that dictators play at their peril.What was America's foreign policy following its independence (1776)?One of isolationism. To focus on it's own independence and interests within the new nation. Also to remain neutral and not involve itself in European conflicts or affairs.What factors led to the War of 1812? Who was the war fought against? What was the result of the war for America?Territory disputes between the British and America over Canadian Border, the impressment of British Naval Ships-forced Americans into their Navy, and the blockade of France all led to this war. It was fought against Britain and it really resulted in no major geographical or political changes. However it did help with the creation of an American identity.What was the Monroe Doctrine?It essentially split the world into two hemispheres; the West and East. It essentially said that the US would not interfere with any current European colonies or spheres of influence but that any further attempts by European nations to colonize areas in North and South America would be met with acts of aggression.What is Manifest Destiny?A US view that it's destiny is to spread democracy, liberty, Christianity, etc. to the rest of the Americas. Especially North America.What are broad factors that led to the Spanish American War? What are two specific factors? What was the result of the war for the US? How did this war change American foreign policy?Manifest Destiny, Domestic Pressure, USS Maine disaster, Yellow Press. I'd say the amount of yellow press-little facts, lots of flashy headlines and the destruction of the USS Maine. The war resulted in the acquisition of the Phillipines, Puerto Rico, and Guam. Turned the US into traditional power and focus away from isolationism.Why did the US colonize the Philippines?It gave the US a strategic port in Asia that would be very important economically. It essentially led to a new part of trading with countries in Asia such as China, which the US previously did not have.What was the Open Door Policy?All nations, including the US could enjoy equal access to China in terms of trading and economic purposes and that China should remain territorially intact.What was the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine? Why was it declared?It essentially involved latin countries in debt to European countries. Those countries should go through US to solve problems. Stop European countries.What was dollar diplomacy? How and why was force used during this period?A policy aimed at furthering the interests of the United States abroad by encouraging the investment of U.S. capital in foreign countries. Gives out loans to foreign countries in need. Force was used to maintain stability in places where there was American interest.What was the US policy at the outset of World War I? Prior to US entry into World War I, what was the main dispute between the US and Germany? What was the Zimmerman telegram? How did these two events lead to US entry into WWI? What was the US policy towards the Russian Revolution?Neutraility and doesn't involve itself in European conflicts. Sub warfare. Cable saying that if Mexico teams up with Germany, it will give Mexico Texas. US doesn't like communist party.What was the League of Nations? What was it supposed to do?Essentially a collective self-defense organization.Why did the US not ratify the League of Nations? What is conservative internationalism? What were the Washington-London Naval Conferences and Kellogg-Briand Pacts? What did they seek to accomplish?It did not want to risk more Americans dying in a war and get involved in any more useless wars. Major powers agree to limit size of navies and essentially for states to not go to war with each other.What was the Smoot-Hawley tariff?Essentially it was to dramatically raise the price of products coming into and leaving the US. Basically to protect American farmers and their products from competition abroadWhat was the Lend Lease Act? Why did the US enter World War 2?Lets US lend or lease military equipment to nations with heavy US interest. Pearl Harbor.Why did Roosevelt believe that the Soviets would cooperate after the end of WW2? How is the post war settlement of WW2 different than the post war settlement of WW1?Behave like other states, financial aid from US, and personal appeal. Germany was split into different parts with different countries taking a piece.What did the allies decide to do about Germany? What is the United Nations? What is the UN Security Council? Who are the 5 permanent members and what special privileges do they have in the UN?Split into many different parts. UN- a global governing body that promotes peace between all company and acts as a watchdog for violence. UN Security council deals with wars and acts of violence. China, France, UK, US, RussiaWhat did the allies decide to do about Eastern Europe? Why was this compromise made?Essentially let countries in Eastern Europe have elections to see what kind of political system they want. To appease to Soviet Russia.How did the Stalin speech in 1946 and the Churchill speech in 1946 deepen the Cold War? What did they say that was so inflammatory?Says that war with the West is inevitable and Churchill says an Iron Curtain has fallen across the East. Essentially war was bond to happen between the East and the West.What was the Truman Doctrine?A policy aimed at the Soviet Union but primarily communism and trying to contain it. US pledged to lend military and economic aid to those if it's stability was affected by communism.What was containment? Who was George Kennan?A policy aimed at stopping or preventing the expansion of communism. A man called X who talked against communism and the massive threat it had against democracy.What were the ways containment was implemented?Military and Financial aid given to countries. Marshall Plan. Truman aids Greece and Turkey.What crises occurred over Berlin? How were they resolved?Soviets closed all access into Berlin, Berlin Wall created. Massive air supplies dropped into parts of Berlin.What events in 1949 made America more fearful of communism?China becomes a communist state. Detonation of nuclear device by Soviets.What was NSC68? What did it call for?A very important piece of AFP in which the Security Council called for no negotiations with Soviets, drastic increase in military spending, development of hydro bombs, more taxes, alliances, mobilization of America, undermining of Soviets from within.What was the post WW2 division of Korea? Where is it divided? Why did the North Koreans attack? How was the US able to get the UN to authorize the use of force against North Korea?Separation of North and South Korea. 38th Parallel. NK wanted a complete communist state. UN has obligation to stop this. First real test.How did the Korean War end? What was the settlement?Ended with an armistice between the North and South. DMZ point at 38th parallel.What was Eisenhower's policy towards China and Taiwan?Defense Treaty with nationalists in Taiwan. Will respond with massive retaliation.What was the New Look Strategy? Why did Eisenhower implement it?Massive retaliation-essentially US will nuke people. Used as a deterrent.How was covert force used by America? Why was it used in Guatemala and Iran?The CIA was used to help friendly governments while undermining and overthrowing bad governments. Used for plausible deniability by the President.What was the CIA's plan for the Bay of Pigs invasion? Why did it fail?US trained exiles to try and overthrow Fidel Castro and the communist government there. The exiles were massively outnumbered, undertrained, and received little air support and no US support.Why were Soviet missiles put in Cuba?Used as spot to launch nuclear missles, could basically hit anywhere in the US with them so great location.What is an ICBM? IRBM? What is MAD and how does it prevent war?Inter-Continental Ballistic Missles and Inter-Mediate Range Ballistic missles. Mutually Assured Destruction and it stops countries from killing everyone.What was ExComm? What solutions were offered by ExComm? Why was a naval blockade used instead of the other solutions?Executive Committee(Invade Cuba, airstrikes, naval blockade, diplomacy)How was the Cuban Missile Crisis resolved?Massive Blockade made Russian ships turn around and take down all missile-launching bases.How did the Cuban Missile crisis affect US and Soviet foreign policies?Buildup of Nuclear Forces, attempts to prevent situations- hotline.Who was Vietnam a colony of? What were Ho Chih Minh's goals for Vietnam? Why did he mistrust the West?France had it. Combine North and South Vietnam into one communist government. America supported the French.What changed American public opinion towards the French war in Vietnam? What policy change did this lead to? Why did the US not intervene in 1954?Anti-communism, US Funds France.What was the settlement of the French Vietnam War? Who led South Vietnam? Why were elections called off?17th Parallel. Splits Vietnam into North and South Vietnam. Ngo Dinh Diem leads the South. Diem wanted to lead the country.Why did the US intervene in Vietnam?Domino Theory, Communist bloc, KoreaWhat did Operation Sunrise do? Why was it implemented?South Vietnamense villages protected by US forces. To stop Vietcong from invading villages and kidnapping people.What happened at the Gulf of Tonkin in 1964? What was the Gulf of Tonkin resolution, what did it do?US destroyers attacked by NVF, led to all out war between US and NVF.What was the North Vietnamese goal for the Tet Offensive? What happened at the Tet Offensive? What was the result of the Tet Offensive?To take over major South Vietnam cities. Major losses by NVF but American support drains.What happened at the Democratic Convention of 1968? What happened at the My Lai Massacre?Riots between anti-war protestors and police happened. American soldiers basically massacred a village of Vietnamese.What was Nixon's stance towards Vietnam when he campaigned in 1968?Gradual withdrawl of troops and Vietnamization.How did Nixon plan on getting the US out of Vietnam? How did events in Cambodia complicate his plans? What was Nixon's proposal to the North Vietnamese? What happened in Vietnam after US forces left?Gradual Withdrawal of troops while allowing the South Vietnamese government to assume control. South Vietnam got wreckedWhy did the US fail to defeat the North Vietnamese? What were the consequences of the Vietnam War on America?NVF Determination, Guerilla Warfare, US Conduct of War, US Image weakened and loss of anti-communist sentiment.What problems faced America during Nixon's presidency? Describe each problem briefly.Weakend Economy-Currency overvalued, dollar bill loses value. Social Problems- racial issues at home. MLKWhat was Nixon and Kissinger's foreign policy based on? How did they plan on dealing with the Soviets? What were the two main aspects of their strategy? What was détente?They planned on using détente to deal with the Soviets.How did the US implement this new policy in regards to China? Why was China willing to ally with the US? What replaced formal US diplomatic recognition with Taiwan in 1979?It gave China a seat on the UN Council and recognized it as an actual government.How did the US implement its new policy in regards to trade with the Soviets? What arms control policies had taken place prior to SALT? What were the goals of SALT? Briefly describe each goal. What two big agreements came out of SALT? What did SALT II call for and why did SALT II fail?Salt 1- ABM Treaty-limits ballistic missle defense systems and SALT 2 involved the reduction of nuclear warheads. SALT 2 failed of problems with détente and it failed because the Soviets violated the pact and the US wanted to build more systems.Why was Carter particularly interested in the Middle East in 1976? Why did the US pressure Israel to accept a UN ceasefire in the 1973 war?Why did Israel and Egypt pursue bilateral negotiations instead of return to Geneva? Why did these bilateral talks falter? Who were the heads of state of Israel and Egypt at the time?What were Carter's goals for the Israel Egypt talks? What prevented Carter from achieving all 3 goals? What was the eventual agreement that came out of the Camp David Accords? What did Egypt, Israel, and the US pledge to do? What effect did this peace have on the other Arab nations?Why was the shah unpopular in Iran? Who led the overthrow of the shah's regime? What prompted the takeover of the US embassy in Iran?What did Iran initially demand in return for the hostages? What did Carter do initially? Why did his military operation fail? What was the effect of the Iran Hostage Crisis on Carter's presidency? Why did Iran eventually negotiate and release the hostages?What platform did Reagan run on in terms of foreign policy in 1980? How did Reagan change American foreign policy? Briefly describe each policy. What effect did these policies have on the Soviets? What happened in 1989-1990? Why did the Cold War end?How did US and Soviet relations change in the developing world after the fall of communism?Dramatically improved.What is START? What does it do? What is the CFE? What did it do?Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty-limits the amount of nuclear warheads. Conventional Armed Forces in Europe- limits the amount of armed forces in Europe.What major changes occurred in the Soviet Union between 1990-1? What is the CIS?Commonwealth of Independent States-what happened when the Soviet Union crashed.What did Fukuyama mean by the "end of history?" What was the "new world order"?That liberal democracy is the final form of government for all nations and that it can not progress any further. Basically crediting the UN with deciding where to go from there, UN in charge.Why did Saddam invade Kuwait? How did the US respond? Why did the US respond? What did the UN do? Why was military force contentious at home?Saddam invaded Kuwait for a number of reasons: $80 billion in debt to the US, Iraq believed that Kuwait was stealing gasoline through slant drilling, and to take over its oil reserves. Used sanctions and an embargo and then essentially kicked Iraq out of Kuwait. UN backed them up.Why did the US not overthrow Saddam at the end of the Gulf War in 1991?Coalition, Fears of Civil War, limited objectives, regional balance of power.What is UNSCOM? What is its mission?United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) was an inspection regime created with the adoption of United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 in April 1991 to oversee Iraq's compliance with the destruction of Iraqi chemical, biological, and missile weapons facilities and to cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency's efforts to eliminate nuclear weapon facilities all in the aftermath of the Gulf War.What are the three main elements of Clinton's early foreign policy?What is NAFTA? WTO? GATT? What do they do?North American Free Trade Agreement. World Trade Organization, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.