29 terms

Dada, Surrealism, Expressionism

Where did Dada originate?
-Originated in Zurich, Switzerland, in 1916
- Zurich was neutral territory during World
War I
- Lenin, James Joyce, and Carl Jung were in
residence here
-Founded by exiles seeking refuge from war's devastation
-Other Dada cells located in Paris, Barcelona and New York
Where did they present their ideas?
Zurich Dada: The Cabaret Voltaire, Founded on February 1, 1916, as an international literary cabaret
Located in a slightly disreputable neighborhood in Zurich, Switzerland, on the Speigelgasse
Sold beer, sausage, and rolls
Provided the venue for the following:
Shocking the bourgeoisie
Attacking common sense, public opinion, and good taste
Ridiculing traditional art
Closed after one year
Know who the Zurich Dadaists were.
Tristan Tzara, Richard Huelsenbeck,
Marcel Janco and Hans Arp
What are the origins of the word Dada?
First word a baby utters?
"Yes, yes" in Russian?
"Hobby-horse" in Rumanian?
Word found at random in the dictionary?
What was Dada originally a protest against?
International movement in art and literature that used ridicule and nonsense to reflect what was considered to be the meaninglessness of the modern world
Anti-war, anti-art, and anti-bourgeois movement
Anarchistic movement that challenged traditional perceptions of art as well as provoked a reexamination of social and moral values
What did it evolve into?
Originally, to express anger over the war
Later, to attack the art establishment which was aligned with middle class society
To destroy those systems based on reason and logic and replace them with ones based on anarchy, the primitive, and the irrational
With whom did the Berlin Dada affiliate?
Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Kurt Schwitters, George Grosz, Otto Dix, Max Ernst, John Heartfield
Know with whom the ready-mades are associated? Also, with whom is merz associated?
Ready-mades: Marcel Duchamp (New York)
Merz: Kurt Schwitters (Berlin)
taken from the bank name "Kommerz- und Privatbank"
premised on the practice of assemblage—the union of ordinary quotidian items with formal artistic elements—art and life, aesthetics and rubbish
transformed garbage into art
What is the Dadaist credo?
Used shock, provocation, and irrationality as a weapon against the Establishment
Asked the question: what kind of culture would condone the industrialized murder of World War I?
Made fun of the "seriousness" and sanctity of traditional art
Believed that traditional art had to be purged and that this new movement was going to start culture from scratch
Created in a "child-like" manner
Believed that the value of art was located more in the act of making it than in the work produced

Chance, spontaneity and provocation
What is surrealism?
the emphasis on the irrational
the need to revolt against institutions and philosophies
the use of dream imagery to give expression to the unconscious as well as to defy institutionalized conventions
Leader of the Surrealists?
André Breton
Know what each of the precursors of surrealism is associated with?
Hieronymus Bosch- The Garden of Earthly Delights
Giuseppe Archimbaldo- Hodge-Podge Portraits
Arnold Böchlin- the dark mysterious island of the Dead
Henri Rousseau- lush, exotic jungle scenes
Giorgio de Chirico- with mysterious, dream-like Italian plazas
Know what each of the surrealists is associated with?
Max Ernst- frottage, grattage, and decalcomania
René Magritte- Makes the ordinary seem extraordinary
Joan Miró- Wants to make us laugh
Salvador Dalí- Paranoic Critical Method
Man Ray- Official photographer of the surrealists
Frottage? Grattage?
Frottage- A drawing made from a rubbing of an interesting surface
Grattage- Laying a canvas over textured objects and then drawing paint over them with a palette knife
Where is the birthplace of Surrealism?
Who originated the paranoic critical method?
Salvador Dalí
adherence to realism and the academic traditions of easel-painting used to depict fantastic or familiar objects placed in unusual surroundings
unconscious doodlings that inspired, evoked, called or summoned forth images from our unconscious
Exquisite Corpses?
Is a method by which a collection of words or images is collectively assembled
Each collaborator adds to a composition in sequence, either by following a rule or by being allowed to see the end of what the previous person contributed
Who wrote Ulysses? What classical work is it based on?
James Joyce, based on Homer's "The Odyssey"
What is stream of consciousness? What surrealism technique does it simulate?
Literary technique that records the continuous flow of multifarious thoughts and feelings of a character without regard to logical argument or narrative sequence.
Closely related to automatism.
Several questions on "The Hunger Artist": who wrote it and what is it about?
Franz Kafka
Uses this literary form as a neutral, detached point of view from which to examine human behavior
Conveys truth in a less offensive, more engaging form than a direct assertion
Appeals to the understanding, the emotions, and the imagination—to the whole person

The meaning of most parables is not so obvious, or at least it shouldn't be.
Most parables contain some element that is strange or unusual.
Parables do not define things precisely but, rather, use comparisons.
Takes the familiar and applies it to the unfamiliar
Makes the unfamiliar more comprehensible

The hunger artist represents a specific type of behavior—the fear of being alive with all of its risks/rewards and the embrace of an inauthentic code of behavior:
the Apollonian trumps the Dionysian
applicable to human beings as well as to artists who follow the rules (the Academy) rather than explore their own individualistic, passionate needs
breeds mediocrity, frustration, and alienation

Needs to be constantly validated by the officials (the impresario and the judges) and the audience
Embraces alienation/isolation
Behaves in an inauthentic manner—confession at the end
Is replaced by appetite for life
Who are the precursors of expressionism?
Vincent van Gogh
Paul Gauguin
Henri Toulouse-Lautrec
Edvard Munch
Which artist saw illness as the metaphor for life?
Edvard Munch
How did the expressionists view the modern city?
The devourer of man
Who is Dionysus? Who is Apollo?
Dionysus- the Greek god associated with primitive urges
Apollo- the Greek god associated with restraint
What is the true course of painting according to the expressionists?
Know the artistic credo, cities, and artists associated with the fauves, die brucke, blaue rieter, and the secessionists
The Fauves- Paris
Credo: to escape from the restraints of the academies by going back to the principles of color organization proposed by Van Gogh, Gauguin, and Seurat
to detach color from its descriptive function
to use color expressively as well as structurally
Artists: Henri Matisse, André Derain, Maurice Vlamnick, Georges Braque, Raoul Dufy, Georges Rouault, Kees van Dongen

Die Brucke- Dresden
Credo: to create new, anti-academic works that served as a "bridge" to the future
to be driven by an "inner force" and "inner necessity" that emphasized an artist's empathy with the interpreted subject matter
to re-discover their German roots
Artists: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Emil Nolde, Erich Heckel, Max Pechstein, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff

Blaue Reiter- Munich
Credo: to create a new approach to painting that identified art with the spiritual rather than the material
to arrive at an art entirely without subject matter except insofar as colors and lines and their relationships constituted a subject
to embrace the influence of all kinds of primitive and naïve art
Artists: Wassily Kandinsky, Franz Marc, Paul Klee, August Macke

Seccesionists- Vienna
Credo: to detach themselves from the historicism of the Academy
to depict reality in terms of personal experience (subjectivity)
to bind the arts and sciences to mythological roots
to create new artistic languages that express the spirit of the age
Artists: Gustav Klimt, Oscar Kokoschka, Egon Schiele
Who wrote Ubu Roi and what was the play's purpose?
Alfred Jarry
Purpose: to escape the rational confines of bourgeois culture